SECOND PART OF THE BOOK OF JOB
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CHAPTERS 22-- 42
This speech again sounds derogatory when taken literally. When taken metaphorically they are positive. Verse 6 and on
accuse him (tongue in cheek) of promoting gospel principles.
1 Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said,
2 Can a man be profitable unto God,
As he that is wise may be profitable unto himself?
3 Is it any pleasure to the Almighty that thou art righteous?
Or is it any gain to him that thou makest thy ways perfect before him?
4 Will he reprove thee for thy fear of him? will he enter with thee
5 Is not thy wickedness great? and also thine iniquities infinite?
6 For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother for naught,
And hast stripped the naked of their clothing.
7 Thou hast not given water to the thirsty,
And hast withholden bread from the hungry.
2. A man can be profitable unto God, Jesus especially, for he
will save all mankind from death and bring salvation to all that will hear
And wise men can be profitable unto themselves if they fear God and obey him. Job explains in 28:28 that to fear God
3. It should be plain that any man's righteousness is pleasing unto
God. It is a gain to God if any of us make our ways even better, but it is
especially true for Jesus, who was perfect.
4. "Will he reprove thee for fear of thee," as it appears
in the KJV, seems to be most absurd because it suggests that God could
fear a man. God would reprove his children (when they fear for Him) out of
His love for them. (cf. Job 7:17; Prov. 3:12--"For whom the LORD loveth he correcteth; even as a father the son in whom he delighteth.")
5. He is speaking tongue-in-cheek, because the accusations only appear
to be condemning.
6. Metaphorically: You ask for them to repent, and demand promises
based on only faith. You leave them humbled and stripped of their pride.
7. "Thirsty" is taken from the HB. Metaphorically: Those
that thirst after righteousness desire baptism, not just a drink of water.
Those that hunger or fast, are seeking the Spirit of the Holy Ghost, not
just a piece of bread. These four things are the First Principles of the Gospel of Jesus
Christ, and it is recorded in Acts 2:37-38, "Now when they heard
this, (about Jesus) they were pricked in their heart, (they had faith) and
said. . . what shall we do? Then Peter said unto them, repent, and be
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of
sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost."
8 But as for the mighty man, he had the earth;
And the honorable man dwelt in it.
9 Thou hath sent widows away empty,
And the arms of the fatherless have been broken.
10 Therefore snares are around thee, and sudden fear troubleth thee;
11 And darkness, that thou canst not see: an abundance of waters cover
12 Is not God in the height of heaven? behold the height of the stars, how
high they are!
13 But thou sayest, How doth God know? can he judge through the dark
14 For thick clouds are a covering to him, that he seeth not,
As he walketh about in the circuits of heaven.
15 Hast thou not marked the old way which wicked men have trodden?
16 Which were cut down out of time, whose foundation was overflown
17 Which said unto God, Depart from us; what can the Almighty do for
18 Yet he filled their houses with the good things;
But the council of the wicked is far from me.
8. The mighty man, meaning God, dwelt in the land. He had the earth, meaning that he was totally in control of it.
sent his widowed mother away when he charged John with her care.
It's recorded in John 19:25-27, "and from that hour that disciple
(John) took her (Jesus' mother) into his own home." Jesus is the fatherless because he had no earthly father. Here his arms represent his earthly power and position,
which are now broken, or more accurately, restricted.
10. This repeats the comparison of the nails that surround him to
snares. 10b alludes to the fact that what he really fears (i.e., being
forsaken by God) came on him suddenly and unexpectedly.
11. His tears are so profuse that he is blinded by them. He is
unable to wipe his own eyes.
12-13. Verses 13-16 are missing in the LXX. The height of the
heavens and the stars testify of the heights of God's knowledge, but even
so, Jesus has questioned the righteousness of his present problems, which
indirectly suggests that God doesn't know.
15-16. Eliphaz, would mislead us by suggesting that Jesus should be
compared to the wicked of Noah's time. The evil men of Noah's time were
destroyed by the great flood.
17. With their attitude, it was too late. God knew they couldn't be
turned away from their wickedness.
19 The righteous see it, and are glad, and the innocent laugh at them with
20 Whereas our substance is not cut down (but their remnant the fire consumeth).
21 Acquaint thyself with him and be at peace; thereby good shall come unto
22 Receive, I pray thee, the law from his mouth, and lay up his words
in thine heart.
23 If thou shalt return to the Almighty, thou shalt be built up;
Thou shalt put iniquity far away from thy tabernacles.
24 Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust,
And the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks.
25 Yea, the Almighty shall be thy gold, and thou shalt have plenty of
26 For then shalt thou have thy delight in the Almighty, and shall lift up thy face unto God.
27 Thou shalt make thy prayer unto him, and he shall hear thee, and thou shalt pay thy vows.
28 Thou shalt also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto thee;
And the light shall shine upon all thy ways.
29 When men are cast down, then thou shalt say to them,
There shall be lifting up; and he shall save the humble person.
30 He shall deliver him that is not innocent; he is delivered by the
pureness of thine hands.
19. The righteous are glad to see that justice does reign.
20. Fire will destroy the wicked next time. Verse 20 is missing in
21-28. Hunger and thirst after righteousness, and all will go well
for you. Learn of God and His ways.
24-25. Gold and silver are
symbols for spiritual riches, and this is saying he will have it as
abundantly as there is dust or rocks in a river bed. Verse 24 is missing
in the LXX.
26. For sure, this is a play on words, as he has not been able to
lift up his head.
27. To "pay thy vows" is to keep His commandments (cf.
Psa. 50:14; 76:11; 116:14&18). It also means to worship God by
offering your sacrifices and prayers.
29-30. How very revealing of Jesus' mission this is. When men are
humbled, through repentance of course, then Jesus can say to them that
there is lifting; They shall be lifted, which means saved, even if they
are guilty of sin, and they shall be delivered through Jesus' perfect life
or "pureness." How could it be more plain? The change to
"him that is not innocent" comes from every other translation
except the RSV, which uses the Gk Syr Vg. All the others are in agreement,
that it should read, "not innocent." What in the world could the
KJV mean when it reads "island of the innocent.
Jesus continues to argue his case of innocence, how unjust things seem to
be; that God is not listening to him. If He would but listen, Jesus knows
He would make everything right. He can not find God anywhere. He
acknowledges His great power, and finishes with "God maketh mine
heart soft," which is certainly another play on words.
1 Then Job answered and said,
2 Even today is my complaint bitter;
For thy stroke is heavier than my groaning.
3 Oh, that I knew where I might find him! that I might come even to his
4 I would order my cause before him, and fill my mouth with arguments.
5 Then I would know the words which he would answer me,
And understand what he would say to me.
6 Would he plead against me,
With his great power?
No; but he would put strength in me.
7 There the righteous might dispute with him,
So I should be delivered for ever from my judge.
8 Behold; I go forward, but he is not there;
And backward, but I cannot perceive him;
9 On the left hand where he doth work, but I cannot behold him.
He hideth himself on the right hand, that I cannot see him there.
10 But he knoweth the way that I take; when he hath tried me I shall come forth as gold.
2. Jesus' strength is spent (cf. 10:1). In the context of "today" the lashing (stroke, v2) has been both literal, from the scourging, and metaphorical from the rod of
discipline in God's hand (cf. Psa. 39:10--"Remove thy stroke away from
me: I am consumed by the blow of thine hand.").
3-4. If possible, he would like to present his case before God, to
declare his innocence.
5. He expresses his confidence in God for justice, if He would only
7. There, the righteous (which means himself) might dispute with Him
over the injustice of his ordeal so he would be freed from his suffering
8-12. Although Jesus can't find God anywhere, and has never had
that problem before, he still knows he is innocent and remains obedient
(cf. Psa. 89:4--"How long, LORD? wilt thou hide thyself for ever?
shall thy wrath burn like fire?" Also see Psa. :3.) On his right
hand, his left hand, and his feet refers to the location of the nails,
where he knows God has been working. All along he has known that it is
really the Father who has been behind this. Verse 9 is missing in the LXX.
11 My foot hath held to his steps; his way have I kept, and not
12 Neither have I gone backward from the commandments of his lips.
I have esteemed his words more than my necessary food.
13 But he is of one mind and who can turn him?
And what his soul desireth, he doeth.
14 For he preformeth the thing that is appointed for me;
And many such things as these are with him.
15 Therefore am I troubled at his presence;
When I considerm, I am afraid of him;
16 For God maketh my heart soft.
And the Almighty troubleth me,
17 Because I was not cut off before the darkness,
And neither hath he covered the darkness from my face.
11. Indeed, his feet have held God's way, both literally and
figuratively. John 5:19 recorded what he means by holding to God's steps
figuratively: "Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily,
verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he
seeth the Father do: ....." (Cf. Psa. 44:18--"Neither hath our
steps declined from thy way.").
13. God is of one mind, knowing all; and that mind isn't going to
14. His suffering will end only when God allows it, but for now it
is not finished, and there is likely to be even more. Verse 14 is missing
in the LXX.
16. God makes him feel rejected and broken, and this is reflected
by a heart that is about to be broken.
17. Jesus is troubled
because he didn't die before this unforeseen thing happened to him. He
seems to realize that God has not destroyed him yet so he can experience
this unexplained suffering.
Jesus asks in a self-examining way, 'Why would one as close to God as
myself, not foresee what is happening?' i.e., God's apparent rejection of
him. But at the same time this line is asking why we don't understand what
this speech is saying. It hasn't been understood for thousands of years
because there isn't a direct statement in it. It consists of metaphors,
similes, and symbolisms in its entirety, all making statements of truth,
none of which are derogatory toward Jesus.
1 Why, seeing times are not hidden from the Almighty, Do they that know him not see his days?
2 Some remove the land marks; they violently take away the flocks, and the feed thereof.
3 They drive away the ass of the fatherless, and they take the widow's ox for a
4 They turn the needy out of the way; the poor of the earth hide
5 Behold, as wild asses in the desert, go they forth to their work,
Rising betimes for a prey;
The wilderness yieldeth food for them, and for their children.
1. Times that are seen by the Almighty, means all times, in the
sense of events, past present and future. It includes events that occur to
individuals as well as momentous occasions like judgment day. "His
days" means his own days, not necessarily in terms of just duration,
but actual events. Then, he is asking, "Why wouldn't one who has been
in such close fellowship with God as I have been, even to the extent of
being shown in advance nearly my entire life, not know about this final
2. Some have violently taken away "landmarks" in the
sense of very great people, meaning Jesus, and his (the
"shepherd's") flock, meaning the disciples. By taking away Jesus
they have also taken away the feed of the flock, which in this case is
"bread." Jesus had said, I am that bread which comes down from
heaven (John 6:41).
3. This says the same as v2, in that Jesus is
"fatherless" as far as an earthly father is concerned. Jesus is
also the widow's ox, which means his mother's ox, and he has been taken to
be crucified, which makes him a "pledge" for the poor in spirit.
All of the poor in spirit's hopes and dreams depend on him keeping the
pledge that he made to them in the premortal existence, when the Father's
great plan of salvation was accepted.
4. "The needy" and "The poor of the earth"
refers to the poor in spirit in general and the disciples in particular,
who have run away and hid from the Jewish authorities.
5. As wild asses search for food in the wilderness, the disciples
search the wilderness (the world), looking for converts, rising
occasionally to find one.
6 They reap every one his corn in the field, and they gather the vintage of the wicked.
7 They cause the naked to lodge without any clothing, and they have
no covering in the cold.
8 They are wet with the mountain showers and embrace the rock for the want
of a shelter.
9 They pluck the fatherless from the breast, and take a pledge of the
10 And they cause him to go about naked without clothing;
And they take away the sheaf from the hungry,
11 Which make oil within their walls,
And treads their winepress,
And suffers thirst.
12 Men groan from out of the city,
And the soul of the wounded crieth out,
Yet god, layeth not folly to them.
6. "His corn" means the produce resulting from Jesus'
sowing. In God's eyes all men are wicked, therefore, "The vintage of
the wicked" means the very best of God's children. They are the those
who will "hear his voice," repent, and be "gathered."
7. Jesus is naked both literally and figuratively. The disciples
are naked figuratively. They are all confused now, with their faith in
"straits." This has a second meaning, in that, since they have
taken away Jesus, and, therefore, the faith of his followers, they are
without the "covering of the Lord." (cf. Isa. 30:1; 47:3; Ezek.
18:16; Rev. 3:18; Psa. 85:2; and 109:29.)
8. They are metaphorically wet from the waters (truth and
knowledge) on the Lord's mountain (cf. John 7:37; Job 36:27-31; Deut.
32:2; Is. 25:10-11); and they cling to the "Rock," Jesus (cf.
Isa. 17:10; Deut. 32:30; Psa. 18:46).
9. Jesus is the one pledged to the poor in spirit that is snatched
away (cf. v3).
10. Jesus is the one naked, hungry, and thirsty. He is the
"bread" to the hungry (cf. v7).
11. Jesus is the "sheaf" (the bread). He is making oil
(spiritual riches) (cf. Pro. 21:20; Zech. 4:12; Matt. 25:4; D&C 33:17)
in what he is doing. He is hanging between the two thieves, which are like
walls on each side of him. He has trodden the winepress, and come forth
with garments of red (cf. Isa. 63:2-3; Rev. 14:20--"And the winepress
was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress,").
He suffers thirst. This is one of the seven things said by Jesus while on
the cross, "Jesus saith . . . I thirst" (John 19:18). It most
likely means more than just physical thirst, because water represents
truth and knowledge as pointed out above; so in that sense, it would also
mean that he desires knowledge, i.e., to know for what reason God has
12a. There are three men there, "out of the city" on
Golgotha, that groan.
12b The soul of Jesus crieth out, "Yet God, layeth not (or
chargeth not) folly to them. It means: "Jesus crieth out, Father
forgive them, for they know not what they do" (Luke 23:34).
13 There are those that rebel against the light;
They know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the paths thereof.
14 The murderer rising killeth the poor and needy, and in the night
is as a thief.
15 The eye also of the adulterer waiteth for the twilight, saying,
No eye shall see me; and disguiseth his face.
16 In the dark they dig through houses,
Which they have marked for themselves in the daytime.
17 They know not the light; for the morning is to them even as the shadow
If one know them, they are caught in the terrors of the shadow of death.
18 He is swift as the waters; their portion is cursed in the earth,
And he beholdeth not the way of the vineyards.
19 Drought and heat consume the snow waters,
So doth the grave those which have sinned.
13. These are they who are enemies of God. These statement now begin
to talk about the Jews, who want him dead.
14. The murderer this time is the Jews, who cause the crucifixion
to start in the morning. All night, during the illegal trial, they acted
as thieves toward Jesus, in that they broke every one of their own laws in
finding Jesus guilty of blasphemy.
15. Verses 15-18 are missing in the LXX. These adulterers had also
waited for the twilight, or darkness to have him arrested, to avoid
problems with any that might come forth to support him. They were afraid
of the crowds that followed him in the daytime.
16-17. This verse parallels verse fifteen. The wicked always
operate the best in darkness, both literally and figuratively; this time
they slay Jesus. "Houses," metaphorically, is from the parable
of building our house on sand or a rock--when the winds blow. It means our
spiritual condition. Cp. Matt. 7:24; 2Cor. 5:1; Heb. 3:6; Job 27:18.
18. "He," meaning the wicked, are of the waters, meaning
the deep, which is Satan's realm. They are not one of the vines of the
Lord, metaphorically speaking.
19. Drought (sin), or a lack of water consumes the pure waters from
heaven, which means truth and knowledge. This reminds us that those who
choose wickedness, lose the spiritual knowledge that they have had,
suggesting the condition of the Jews, who once knew God.
20 The womb shall forget him; the worm shall feast sweetly on him,
And he shall be no more remembered; and wickedness shall be broken as a
21 He evil entreateth the barren that beareth not,
And doeth not good to the widow.
22 He draweth also the mighty with his power,
he riseth up, and man trusteth not his own life.
23 Though it be given him to be in safety whereon he resteth,
Yet his eyes are upon all their ways.
24 They are exalted for a while,
But then are gone and brought low;
They are taken out of the way as others,
And they are cut off as the tops of the ears of corn.
25 And if it be not so now, who will make me a liar,
And make my speech worth nothing?
20. "Wickedness broken like a tree" means that Satan will
be defeated, or justice will reign.
21. Jesus cursed the barren fig tree. Jesus' words are recorded in
Matt. 21:18 and Mark 11:12, " and he said unto it, let no fruit grow
on thee henceforward for ever." Jesus was forced to send away his
widowed mother, giving up his role of protector and defender, hence,
"doing her no good."
23. Jesus has the power within himself to end his suffering at any
time, but he must let the ordeal continue until the Father says enough
(cf. John 10:18). Because he earlier referred to being laid down on the
cross as his bed (cf. 7:13; 17:13; Psa. 6:6; 41:3), he repeats the use of
the metaphor, tongue-in-cheek, but he surely does not rest.
24. They, the Jews, will prosper for now, but soon will receive
their punishment, even "cut off" as a nation.
25. This statement sounds almost like a challenge to understand
what he has said.
'God has dominion over all that there is in both heaven and earth. He is
so great that the moon and stars, which are not understood by us, are
nothing in his eyes. Are you so sure of your purity? Who, or what, is a
man in comparison? a maggot! '
1 Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,
2 Dominion and fear are with him,
He maketh peace in his high places.
3 Is there any numbering of his armies?
And upon whom doth not his light arise?
4 How then can man be justified before God?
Or how can he be clean that is born of a woman?
5 Behold even to the moon, and it shineth not;
Yea, the stars are not pure in his sight.
6 How much less a man, that is a worm?
The son of man, which is a worm?
2. God has dominion over all the earth. He also is to be
"feared," or respected. "And unto man he said, Behold, the
fear of the Lord, that is wisdom;" (Job 28:28). (cf. Psa.111:10). 2b,
He maketh peace among those with him in the celestial heights. The
opposite of peace is war, and it might seem strange, even unbelievable, to
those who haven't learned about the war in our premortal life, that there
could be war in heaven; but our poet has alluded to it twice before: first
in 4:18, where he said, "and his angels he charged with folly:"
and second in 15:15, "Yea, the heavens are not clean in his
sight." (cf. Jude 6; Rev. 12:7-12). These verses indicate that there
was dissension, even rebellion, among God's children in the premortal
life, and through His power peace has been restored.
armies are so numerous that they cannot be counted, at least by man. 3b,
More important than just His light arising upon all, this suggests that
all are dependent upon His light.
4. Then, when God is so great, how can a man be in the right before
Him? And the greater question which we have been pursuing all along, How
can a man question Him, or His justice?
5-6. The moon is big and bright and the stars shine brightly, but
still they are not pure in His sight; how much less is a man, who doesn't
shine at all? (cf. D&C 122:8; Psa. 22:6--"But I am a worm, and no
man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people."). One might
consider, here, that the Hebrew word that worm is translated from is the
worm of a certain tree that when ground up produces red or crimson dye,
called the crimson grub (tôla<ath). When Jesus calls himself the
crimson grub(Cp. Psa 22:6), it suggest another meaning for the line,
"where their worm dieth not" (Isa. 66:24; Mk. 9:44,46), which
describes the condition of eternal damnation. For the partakers of that
kingdom the atonement is of no value, hence their worm dieth not. For the
rest of us, the crimson worm dieth on the cross for our sins.
In reply to Satan's charges (of being hedged about by the Father), Jesus
asks the Father, rhetorically, 'How has he been helped when he grows
weaker and weaker and remains in the dark?' Then he reviews his knowledge
of God by describing how God created the heavens and earth, and Satan. It
is ironic that it was Jesus himself did all of these things under the
direction of the Father, since he was Jehovah of the Old Testament. In
reality, then, he is saying, Jehovah is the person that you have been
1 But Job answered and said,
2 Hast thou helped him that is without power?
How savest thou the arm that hath no strength?
3 How hast thou counseled him that hath no wisdom?
And how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is?
4 To whom hast thou uttered words, and whose spirit come from thee?
5 Dead things tremble from under the waters, and the inhabitants
6 Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering.
7 He stretcheth out the north over the empty place,
And hangeth the earth
2. His arm, the symbol of his power (cf. Job 40:9; Psa. 44:3; 89:10;
Jer. 27:5--"I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon
the ground, by my great power and by my outstretched arm, and have given
it unto whom it seemed meet unto me."), is now without strength, both
figuratively and literally. He is without power not because he couldn't do
something about his situation if he wished, but because he will not
disobey the Father.
3. Jesus claims to be without wisdom because he doesn't understand
for what reason the Father has forsaken him. His "friends" have
told him the truth, and plentifully.
4. They have been speaking to "The Anointed One," and in
the same spirit as the Father would have done.
5-6. Dead things
tremble (HB, pg. 300) before God in the darkness, or the deep, which means
Satan's realm. Their nakedness means God has total control over them. But
they are naked in another sense; i.e., Christ's grace is not sufficient to
cover their sins, or in other words, to grant them forgiveness. They are
eventually destined to be cast out to outer darkness.
7. Poetically, God created the heavens, that great dome of stars
above the earth, and hung the earth below it, on nothing.
8 He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds, and the cloud is not rent
9 He holdeth back the face of his throne, and spreadeth his cloud
10 He hath compassed the surface of the waters with bounds,
Until the day and night come to an end.
11 The pillars of heaven tremble,
And are astonished at his reproof.
12 He divideth the sea with his great power,
And by his understanding he smiteth through the proud.
13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens;
His hand hath formed the crooked serpent.
14 Lo, these are parts of his ways,
But how little a portion is heard of him?
And the thunder of his power, who can understand?
8. He does the seemingly impossible when he holds great quantities
of water in the sky.
9. He can hide his face, or throne, denying man knowledge of
himself when they are not worthy. This could be a reference to the time
that Jehovah went before the Israelites in a cloud, when they left Egypt.
He cast Satan and his hosts out of heaven into the deep, putting
limits on them there. The pillars of heaven, meaning the strong spirit
children, were aghast at the loss of one third of the hosts of heaven when
they were cast out by God.
12. The sea is used symbolically to represent the hosts of heaven,
a sea of children, which God divided, separating out the wicked (proud).
It could also be a reference to the Red Sea, which he divided for the
Israelites, defeating the proud, representing Egypt.
13. He garnished, or cleaned up, the heavens by casting out Lucifer
and the other wicked children, thereby creating (forming) the serpent,
meaning Satan. Satan has been used by God since then to create an
environment of good and evil for us; so we can learn the bitter to
appreciate the sweet. Cf. Psa. 74:13C "Thou didst divide the sea by
thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou
brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the
people inhabiting the wilderness." Also see 104:25-26--". .
.there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein [the
14. These are only a few of his ways. Most of His ways man never
sees or hears about, nor can he understand.
Even though Jesus feels like God prevents him from resolving his dilemma,
(i.e., How can God be the just God that he knows He is and still cause
this undeserved suffering.) he is determined not to say anything against
Him. If he did he would prove that his friend's arguments were correct
(v5) ( i.e., that he is guilty of some sin). Then he proceeds to teach
them what the wicked can expect from God; and lo and behold, he describes
what is happening to himself. He cannot rationalize the conflicting facts,
but will not speak out against God, come what may.
1 Moreover Job continued with his parable, and said,
2 As God liveth, who hath taken away my judgment, the Almighty, who hath vexed
3 All the while my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my
4 My lips shall not speak wickedness, nor my tongue utter deceit.
5 God forbid that I should justify you;
Till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me.
6 For my righteousness I hold fast, and I will not let it go;
And mine heart shall not reproach me for as long as I shall live.
7 Let mine enemy be as the wicked, and he that riseth up against me the
8 For what is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained, when God
taketh his soul?
9 Will God hear his cry when trouble cometh upon him?
10 Will he delight himself in the Almighty?
Will he always call upon God?
11 I will teach you being by the hand of God;
That which is with the Almighty will I not conceal.
2-3. He recognizes that something is wrong with his judgment, and says
it is caused by God.
3. "Breath" is paralleled with "spirit," and it
means "his life."
4. Though he is without understanding, he will not utter deceit or
cover his feelings.
5. If he were to do these things, of v4, then he would make their
claims correct; i.e., that he did sin.
6. "My heart" is the same as saying, "my
7-9. His enemy is the godless, and he feels they should be
considered the wicked for accusing him of being wicked. They are
hypocritical for doing so (V8). No, God will not hear the godless, or
hypocritical, nor will they even call upon him for help.
12 Behold, all ye have seen it; why then are ye thus altogether vain?
13 This is the portion of a wicked man with God,
The heritage of the oppressors,
Which they will receive of the Almighty.
14 If his children be multiplied, it is for the sword;
And his offspring shall not altogether be satisfied with bread.
15 Those that remain of him shall be buried in death, and his widow shall
16 Though he heap up silver as the dust, and prepare raiment as the clay.
17 He may prepare it, but the righteous shall put it on;
And the innocent shall divide the silver.
18 He buildeth his house as a moth,
Even as a garden booth,
The keeper maketh.
19 The rich man lieth down,
But he shall not be gathered.
When he openeth his eyes, he is not.
20 Terrors take hold on him as many waters,
And a tempest stealeth him away in the night.
21 The east wind carrieth him away, and he departeth;
And the storm hurleth him out from his place.
22 For God shall cast upon him, and not spare;
He would gladly flee out of his hand.
23 Men shall clap their hands at him,
And hiss him out of his place.
12. He thinks they are vain because they haven't seen that he is
innocent, that they simply conclude that his suffering means that he has
15. All those that follow after Jesus will be buried in death,
symbolically in the waters of baptism.
16-17. All the efforts of Jesus (spiritual riches, represented by
silver and raiment) are for the benefit of the repentant, which are made
innocent and righteous through baptism.
18. His "house" is his belief that God is making a mistake,
and is very temporary, like a garden shelter or booth made of sticks, or a
cocoon in the garden which is also very temporary.
19. When he lies down on the cross he thinks it is the end, but he
is not "gathered in to God" just yet. He just has to open his
eyes to see that he is not taken away by God, and the terrors really
20-21. This is all metaphorical: God's wind carries him away
from his expectations. It's an east wind, known to be hot, dry, and
uncomfortable (cf. Jer. 18:17; Ezek. 17:10.)
22. "Fain," as the KJV reads, is archaic and means
"gladly" or "joyful."
23. He is held in contempt and scorn by all. The clapping is in joy of
his calamity. Misfortune claps and whistles or jeers at him, while joy
This chapter starts with an analogy, comparing the mining operations of
precious stones with the searching out of spiritually-minded people, even
those who will accept the Gospel and repent. Precious stones are the
object of the search. This analogy is like the others that the Lord uses
when talking about his children. Namely, they are referred to as vines and
other plants such as trees, thorns, and thistles, and God is their
dresser; they are referred to as sheep or lambs, as well as other animals
such as cattle, and God is the shepherd; they are referred to as fowls
such as chicks, and God is the mother hen, who would gather them under her
wing. Here he is talking about the gathering of precious stones, as well
as the search for precious knowledge. He ends by telling us what true
wisdom is. Other expositors have failed to understand this chapter and
think that it shouldn't follow the previous chapter. Some have even moved
it. It fits well here because it is his wisdom and understanding that is
under fire. It is very much on his mind, since he seems to be without it.
We might think of this as a self-examination, an attempt to discover if
there is an error in his thinking, It is an attempt to resolve the problem
that has faced him from the beginning; that is, for what reason has God
forsaken him when he is so sure of his innocence. His self-examination
continues in chapter thirty-one.
1 Surely there is a vein for silver, and a place for gold where they
2 Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is molten out of the stone.
3 He setteth an end to darkness, and searcheth out perfection:
For the stones in darkness and the shadow of death.
4 The flood breaketh out from the inhabitant,
Even waters, forgotten of the foot.
They are dried up;
They are gone away from men.
1. The earth is the place where silver and gold, the symbols of
spiritual richness (including choice spirits), are refined (tried and
2. Instead of removing the dross to get iron or brass, think of the
iron and brass as the dross, and it is being removed from the dust, or
clay, meaning from the gold, for we are purifying men.
3. Jesus ends the darkness that is cast over all men, which means
death. His truths also replace the darkness in men's minds, superstitions,
etc.. Jesus searches the world for the righteous, who are the
"stones," using the same terminology that is often used for
4. A flood of tears break out on Golgotha, even tears of water,
which have nothing to do with water underfoot (a play on words since he
can no longer walk).
4b. Waters for Jesus, representing knowledge, are dried up. This
means that knowledge (water) seems to have gone away from men, especially
one man. It could also refer to the knowledge that has been available to
the disciples, now "dries" up with Jesus' death.
5 As for the earth, out of it cometh bread;
And under it is turned up, as it were, by fire.
6 The stones of it are a place of sapphires,
And it hath dust of gold.
7 There is a path which no fowl knoweth,
And which the vulture's eye hath not even seen.
8 The lion's whelps have not trodden it, nor the fierce lion passed by it.
9 He putteth forth his hand upon the rock, and he overturneth mountains by
10 He cutteth out rivers among the rocks, and his eye seeth every precious
11 He bindeth the floods from overflowing,
And the thing that is hid bringeth he forth to light.
12 But where is wisdom found? and where is the place of understanding?
13 Man knoweth not the price thereof, neither is it found in the land of
14 The depth saith, It is not found in me; and the sea saith, It is not
5. Verses 5-9a are missing in the LXX. Earth, or clay from which
Jesus (bread) comes, is "fired" underneath heaven (on earth)
through the crucifixion. In a broader sense, all men who are made from the
clay of the earth are "fired" below (on earth).
6. The earth, its rocks, is the place of precious people, both
"sapphires" and "gold." Cp. Malachi 3:17 "And
they shall be mine, saith the LORD of hosts, in that day when I make up my
jewels; and I will spare them, as a man spareth his own son that serveth
7. The path to eternal life is not known by the killers, or sons of
perdition. They do not know where it is, or even where to look for it.
8. "The King of Beasts" (Satan), or his
"whelps" have never been on the path to eternal life (cf.
9. Putting his hand upon the rock, means he takes a personal
interest in his jewels--an active part in the search for them, even
overturning or upsetting mountains (the prideful) to find them.
10. God does what he must, overturning all to find every precious
"stone." Cutting out rivers could mean the calling forth of
"fountains of truth," or prophets, to help in the search for
11. The "floods" are the same as the "deep," or
the realm of the serpent, Satan, and this statement tells us that God has
put limits (bindeth) on his powers. In the context of Satan, it goes on to
say that all wickedness will be exposed or revealed.
12. Where can wisdom be found? It is not of this world, but comes
down from heaven or from God. Wisdom from God is so priceless we should go
and sell all that we have to buy it that "pearl of great price"
(Matt. 13:46). It is not found in the realm of Satan, which is the depth
or the sea.
14-19. True wisdom comes only from God, in other words, and it
cannot be bought or compared to any of the things man considers valuable.
Verses 14-19 are missing in the LXX.
15 It cannot be gotten for gold,
Neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof.
16 It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir,
With the precious onyx, or the sapphire.
17 Gold and crystal cannot equal it,
And the exchange of it shall not be for vessels of fine gold.
18 No mention shall be made of coral, or pearls; for the price of wisdom is
19 The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, nor shall it be valued with pure
20 Whence then cometh wisdom, and where is the place of understanding?
21 Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all the living,
And kept close from the fowls of the air.
22 Destruction and death say,
We have heard the fame thereof with our ears.
23 God understandeth the way thereof, and he knoweth the place thereof;
24 For he looketh to the ends of the earth, and he seeth all under the
25 To make the weight for the winds, and weigheth the waters by measure;
26 When he made a decree for the rain,
And a way for the lightning,
And the thunder.
27 Then did he see it and declared it;
And then he prepared it, yea, and searched it out.
28 And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom,
And to depart from evil is understanding.
21. Wisdom comes from heaven, from God, and even though the fowls
of the air fly very high, they know nothing of it. Verse 21b is missing in
22. Instead of destruction the Hebrew uses Abaddon, which means
hell, or the place of destruction.
25. "Weight of the winds" means the power and force of
the winds. "By his measure" means "in the hollow of his
hand" (Isa. 40:12).
26-28. Wisdom comes from heaven, and throughout the scriptures the
metaphor of water from heaven is used to represent God's truth and
knowledge. One who fears God, searches out the "rain' from heaven,
and that is to have wisdom (cf. Prov. 1:7 and 2:1-7), Psa.
111:10--"The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom:". Verse
27 is missing in the LXX.
Jesus longingly remembers when all was going so well for him before the
betrayal, especially when he could foresee the future. Now, being in
darkness is the most significant point of this chapter. He remembers when
he had friends; when he had been worshiped; when he had been held in
esteem by all; and even when he had control over sickness and death. All
of these memories belong to Jesus.
1 Moreover Job continued his parable and said,
2 Oh that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me;
3 When his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked
4 As I was in the days of my youth, when the secret of God was upon my
5 When the Almighty was yet with me, and my children were about me;
6 When my feet were washed with cream, and the rock poured me
rivers of oil;
7 When I went out to the gate through the city, when I prepared my seat in the
2-3. Jesus remembers when God was like a constant companion, even
to the point of preserving him from danger (cf. Matt. 26:53; John 6:5;
7:30-32; 10:39). He yearns for those better times, when all of his paths
were clearly lighted by God's light.
4. Some translators use "prime" instead of
"youth," which would mean in the days of his ministry; but
"youth" could mean much more; i.e., it would mean his learning
years, when God was revealing His "secrets" to him, through
5. Again, "children" means his disciples and other
6. The K&D, HB, NIV, MJJ and RSV translations all agree that
"butter" (as it is in the KJV), should be translated
"cream," and only the Hebrew Bible changes "steps" to
"feet," which is a necessary change for this line to make any
sense. After that change, the line becomes most significant when applied
to Mary and Jesus. Mary anointed his feet, and a woman "poured
oil" on his head. Notice that both the woman and Mary are referred to
as "rocks." Matt. 26:6-13 tells of the oil, "There came
unto Him a woman . . . with precious ointment, and poured it on His
head." John 12:3 reports of his foot bath, "Then took Mary a
pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of
Jesus." There is still another occurrence in Jesus' life that this
could reflect. It would be the time when a woman bathed his feet in her
tears, and then dried them with her hair (Luke 7:36). Indeed, a woman's
tears could be called cream, metaphorically.
7-10. The city gates had space on either side where people could
congregate for business, or hold a forum (cf. Psa. 69:12; Prov.
31:23--"Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the
elders of the land."). "In the street" is translated as
"in the market, or square," by others, which, considered
together, reveal the idea.
8 The young men saw me, and hid themselves; the aged arose and
9 The princes refrained from talking, and laid their hand upon their mouth.
10 The nobles held their peace, and their tongue cleaved to the roof of their
11 When the ear heard me, then it blessed me; and when the eye saw me, it gave
witness to me,
12 Because I delivered the poor that cried, the fatherless, and him that had
none to help.
13 The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me,
And I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy.
14 I put on righteousness, and it clothed me;
My judgment was a robe and a diadem.
15 I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.
16 I was a father to the poor, and the unknown cause I searched out.
17 And I brake the jaws of the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his
18 Then I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days even
as a phoenix.
8. This line just reveals how much respect people held for him, with its very effective imagery.
9. Even the "princes" were astonished to the point of
being dumbfounded. For a little while, Jesus had the honor and respect of
11. Simeon and Anna saw Jesus and blessed him (Luke 2:25-38).. Surely
this also refers to John the Baptist who also testified of his divinity
when he first saw him.
12-17. Many followed Jesus because of the miracles that he
performed. He gladdened the widow of Nain by raising her son from the
dead. See Luke 7:11-17; Mark 5:35-43; and John 11:1-46 for three other
stories of the dead being raised by Jesus.
15. Jesus healed the blind and the lame. Matt. 11:5 reports of many
of his miracles, "The blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the
lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up . . ."
17. Jesus defeated the "jaws" of death by making it
possible for all to be resurrected. It seems strange that he would include
this statement before it's an actuality, especially since, according to
the allegory, he is in doubts about his success in achieving that.
18. Jesus thought that he would live forever like a phoenix (a
mythical bird believed to burn in its nest only to rise from the ashes and
live another 500 years), which is nearly the case when one believes in a
resurrection. K&D takes two or three pages (Pg. 127-130) to just
explain that the Hebrew word is "phoenix" and not
"sand," as the KJV has it. Technically, it matters very little,
because either of these words communicates the same idea, immortality.
19 My root was spread out by the waters, and the dew lay all night upon
20 My glory was fresh in me, and my bow was renewed in mine hand.
21 Unto me men gave their ear, and waited for me,
And kept silent at my counsel.
22 After my words, they spake not again;
And my speech dropped upon them gently as mists of rain.
23 They waited for me as for rain; they opened their mouth wide as for the
24 I smiled upon them when they had no confidence in themselves,
And the light of my countenance they cast not down.
25 I chose the way for them, and sat as chief,
And dwelt as the king in their army,
As one that comforteth mourners.
19. Here he compares himself to a plant, metaphorically, that is growing in the very best conditions.
20. "Bow" represents power , so he remembers when his
glory and power were fresh and unquestioned (by himself).
22. This is reminiscent of Deut. 32:2, "My doctrine shall drop
as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew, as the small rain upon
the tender herb and as the showers upon the grass." The "latter
rain" in Israel was the most important rain, as it came in summer and
provided the moisture needed until harvest time.
24. All the other translations use the word "smiled"
instead of "laughed." Laughed would probably not be in character
for either Job or Jesus, so it is suspect from the start. Three of the
other translation then went on to say something negative, like "they
believed it not," but that would not be consistent with all the other
verses of this chapter that talk about how mesmerized they were with him.
The RSV and Jastrow versions are nearly the same and communicate an idea
that is compatible with the other lines, and so it is adopted here.
24b. He was accepted by them for a time.
25. K&D explain the meaning of the Hebrew this way, "I
chose their way," i.e. I made the way plain, which they should take
in order to get out of their hopeless and miserable state, and sat as
chief, as a king who is surrounded by an armed host as a defense and as a
guard of honor, attentive to the motion of his eye; not, however, as a
sovereign ruler, but as one who condescended to the mourners, and
comforted them." How would more help? Verse 25 is missing in the LXX.
'But now, all is turned upside down for me. Those that previously gave me
great respect (related in previous chapter), now hold me in derision. I
cry out, but not even God hears me. Physically, I am a disaster filled
with only mourning and weeping.' He has come to the end of his life.
1 But now they that are younger than I have put me in derision,
Whose fathers I would have disdained to have set with the dogs of my
2 Yea, whereto might the strength of their hands profit me,
In whom their old age is perished long ago?
3 For want and famine they languish,
Fleeing into the wilderness aforetime, desolate and waste.
4 Who cut up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their bread.
5 They were driven forth from among men, they cried after them
as after a thief.
6 They were forced to dwell in the cliffs of the valleys,
In caves of the earth, and in the rocks.
7 Among the bushes they brayed,
And under the nettles,
They were gathered together.
8 They were the children of fools,
Yea, they were the children of men of no name;
They were viler than the earth.
1. His former position of respect (brought out in the last chapter),
is taken away by "they that are younger." He is ridiculed by men
who are not worthy of watching the flocks, as dogs do. He is taken by men
that could never serve "the shepherd." cf. Psa. 22:16--"For
dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they
pierced my hands and my feet."
2. They have lost their "old age," which means their
eternal salvation, long ago. It is missing in the LXX.
3. They are lost because they rejected the prophets long ago and
were driven into the wilderness of Babylon. Metaphorically, they rejected
the "bread," fleeing into desolation. It is missing in the LXX.
4-8. They turned away from the truth, not listening to the cries of
the prophets. They were forced into the spiritual desert to hide in
darkness (ignorance). Metaphorically, they no longer had bread, which
represents the wisdom of God. They had bitter brush and roots for their
bread. Verse 4a is missing in the LXX.
9 And now am I their song, yea, I am their byword.
10 They abhor me; they flee from me, and spare not to spit in my face.
11 Because he hath loosed my cord, and afflicted me,
They have let loose their bridle before me.
12 Upon my right hand rise the youth;
They entangle my feet,
And raise up against me the way of their destruction.
13 They mar my path, they set forward my calamity, they have no
14 They came upon me as a wide breaking in of waters;
In the desolation they rolled in upon me.
15 Terrors are turned upon me;
They pursue my soul as the wind,
And my welfare passeth away as a cloud.
16 And now my soul is poured out upon me,
And the days of affliction have taken hold upon me.
17 My bones are pierced in me in the night season, and my sinews take no rest.
9. Now, they cry out mockingly, "Come down, save thyself, King of
the Jews." (See Matt. 27:41-42; Mark 15:32; Luke 23:37, Psa.
69:11-12,) (cf. Lam. 3:14, "I was a derision to all my people, and a
song all the day.").
10. They abhor him and stand back, only coming forward to spit upon
him. Jesus was also spat upon during his trial. (See Matt. 15:19; Matt.
27:30; Mark 14:65; and Mark 15:19.)
11. This means "collapsed my tent by loosening the main
line," which, literally, means destroying his world or his well
being. Jesus offered no defense in obedience to the Father, and the
revilers take advantage of it, with their restraint (bridle) loosened. Now
they are like run-away horses.
12. Young soldiers take his feet out from under him and lay him on
the cross. The cross is their "way of destruction," of killing.
The NIV reads: "They lay snares for my feet". A 1965 edition of
the Holy Scriptures, published by The Jewish Publication Society of
America reads "entangle my feet."
13. They, his enemies, destroy his way, making "all freedom of
motion and any escape impossible to him" (K&D. pg 153). They add
to his calamity, which is, primarily, being forsaken by God. They do what
they do with great efficiency, needing "no helper."
14-15. The crowds mock, the priests mock, the guards mock, even one
of the thieves mocks when Jesus is on the cross. They all unite against
him like a tidal wave or storm front, until he passes away.
16. The HB says, "My life runs out." K & D. explains
that it means more than just tears, that the outward incident is but the
manifestation and result of an inward action. This must be the moment of
heartbreak when his life poured out within him. Verse 16 is missing in the
17. Again the analogy of night is used because of the darkness,
both figuratively and literally (cf. 2:13 and 5:19).
18 By the great force of my disease is my garment changed;
It bindeth me about as the collar of my coat.
19 He hath cast me into the mire,
And I am become like dust and ashes.
20 I cry out to thee, and thou dost not hear me;
I stand up, and thou regardest me not.
21 Thou art become cruel to me;
With thy strong hand,
Thou opposest thyself against me.
22 Thou liftest me up and mounteth me upon the wind;
Thou causest me to ride upon it, and it dissolvest away my substance.
23 For I know thou wilt bring me to death, and to the house appointed for
all the living.
24 Howbeit he will not stretch out his hand to a ruinous heap,
And cry not for me in my time of destruction?
25 Did not I weep for him that was in trouble?
Was not my soul grieved for the poor?
18. Being naked, his only garment is his skin. It is stretched and
stiff, making it difficult to turn his head. The blood clots and open
wounds from the scourging would also contribute to the problem.
20. God has not responded to any of his cries or pleadings to be
heard. Jesus did cry out, "My God, my God, Why hast thou forsaken
me?" Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34; (cf. Psa. 22:1--"My God, my God,
why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so far from helping me, and from
the words of my roaring?").
22. Jesus is lifted up, into the wind, and mounted upon it (HB), as
clothes are lifted up and pinned to the clothes line. "And as Moses
lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the son of man be
lifted up" (John 3:14) (cf. Psa. 30:1 and Psa. 18:10--"And he
rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the
wind."). Verse 22 is missing in the LXX.
24. K&D report, "Most of the ancient versions indulge
themselves in strange fancies respecting ver. 24 to make a translatable
text, . . ." There is no unanimity among the translations, indicating
that no one knows what this says. The KJV usually makes the best sense in
terms of Jesus, but "to the grave" makes no sense. If we change
just the ending to the Hebrew, i.e. ruin, or ruinous heap, as in older
versions, then it does make sense, if he is the ruinous heap. It is
exactly the kind of question he has been asking all along. Then, if we
make the verse into a parallelism, using some of the same words that are
in the KJV, we can easily come up with this line, and it ties in nicely
with the next verse.
25. Jesus, indeed, was grieved for the poor in spirit, even enough
to agree to the atonement. He did all that was required of him to
26 When I looked for good, then evil came unto me,
And when I waited for the light, there came only darkness.
27 My bowels boiled and rested not; the days of affliction cut me off.
28 I went mourning without the sun;
I stood up, and I cried in the congregation.
29 I am a brother to the jackals, and a companion of ostriches.
30 My skin is become black upon me, and my bones are burned up with heat.
31 My harp also is turned to mourning, and my pipes into the voice of them
26. This line again reflects the fact that he was in darkness as
far as knowing why God had forsaken him. But, he is also in darkness
27. "prevented me" is awkward. It means to
counter in advance. In other words to stop, or cut off, as it is here.
28. He is mourning in the darkness, both literally and
figuratively. He cried out in the dark in a "congregation,"
i.e., surrounded by his enemies. "I stood up" is certainly a
play on words, being nailed up in the vertical position.
29. K&D, RSV, HB, MJJ, and NIV all change this to
jackals and ostriches, In a foot note (pg. 171), K&D goes on to say:
"It is worth while to cite a passage from Shaw's Travels in
Barbary, ii.348 (transl.) here: 'When the ostriches are running and
fighting, they sometimes make a wild, hideous, hissing noise with their
throats distended and beaks open; at another time, if they meet with a
slight opposition, they have a clucking or cackling voice like our
domestic fowls: they seem to rejoice and laugh at the terror of their
adversary. During the loneliness of the night however, as if their voice
had a totally different tone, they often set up a dolorous, hideous moan,
which at one time resembles the roar of the lion, and at another is more
like the hoarser voice of other quadrupeds, especially the bull and cow. I
have often heard them groan as if they were in the greatest agonies. In
General Doumas' book on the Horse of the Sahara, I have read that
the male ostrich (delim), when it is killed, especially if its young ones
are near, sends forth a dolorous note, while the female (remda), on the
other hand, does not utter a sound; and so, when the ostrich digs out its
nest, one hears a languishing and dolorous tone all day long, and when it
has laid its egg, its usual cry is again heard, only about three o'clock
in the afternoon." This cry that they utter, about 3:00 in the
afternoon, is about the time of Jesus' cry: "My God, My God, why hast
thou forsaken me?"
30. His skin is black from blood clots and bruises (cf. Psa.
119:83--"For I am become like a bottle in the smoke; yet do I not
forget thy statutes."), and his bones are burning with fever from the
31.Instruments normally used for joyous occasions are now given
over for mourning. No doubt the organ was not invented, so this should be
pipe, like a flute, as the other translations have it.
Jesus implores, 'What was my error? I don't know of one. I know it was not
any of the following. Oh, that one would hear me. My desire is for God to
answer and confirm that I am free of sin.' Jesus must have died thinking
that he had failed and God had rejected him. That is certainly enough
reason to cause the broken heart that some believe ended his life. A
broken heart could be considered to have been self-inflicted, "by his
own breath," as it had to be, according to scripture. Medically, many
think a ruptured heart explains the blood and water that was reported to
issue from the spear wound. Jesus had worked many miracles in his life
time. He enjoyed powers beyond any other human. He not only had power over
life and death, but also the forces of nature and the physical elements as
well. Even as early as age twelve, other men listened to him. All the
glory from other men, as well as any nurtured within himself, had to be
given back, even until he was reduced to "nakedness" as
prophesied in chapter two: "Naked [without earthly glory] shall I
return thither." It was fulfilled, both literally and figuratively.
But most important of all, Jesus accepted what God did to him. He voiced
his opinion that he thought it was unjust, which is how it would look to
him, but he didn't let it anger him to the point of taking control of the
situation against the Father's will. Throughout the long trial, Jesus
questioned the righteousness of it, but obeyed and remained sinless.
1 I made a covenant with mine eyes,
Why then should I think upon a maid?
2 For what portion of God is there above,
And what inheritance of the Almighty on high?
3 Is not there a destruction reserved to the wicked?
And a strange punishment to the workers of iniquity?
4 Doth not he look upon my ways, and count all of my steps?
5 If I have walked with vanity, or if my foot hath hasted to deceit?
6 Let me be weighed in an even balance, that God may know mine integrity.
1. Verses 1-4 are missing in the LXX. Jesus, searching for error,
knows he has not broken any covenants, for he has not even thought upon a
2-3. If he had sinned, he knows what the consequences would be.
Pain and suffering, even complete destruction is for the wicked.
4. He is sure that God knows of his innocent.
5-6. Again, he asks to be examined by God, who, he knows, will see
that he is pure.
7 If my step hath turned out of the way,
And mine heart hath walked after
And if any blot hath cleaved to mine hands,
8 Then let me sow, and let another eat it;
Yea, let mine offspring be rooted out.
9 If mine heart have been deceived by a woman,
Or if I have ever laid wait at my neighbor's door,
10 Then let my wife grind unto another,
And let others bow down upon her.
11 For this would be an heinous crime before God;
Yea, it is an iniquity to be punished by the judges.
12 For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction,
And would root out all of mine increase.
13 If I did despise the cause of my manservant,
Or my maidservant, when they contended with me,
14 What then shall I do when my God riseth up?
And when he visiteth, what shall I answer him?
15 Did not he that made me in the womb make him?
Did not one fashion us both in the womb?
7-8. "If I have erred, I deserve nothing, or even worse, a
curse." (cf. Deut. 28:30-45). He realizes that to sin and all would
9. This brings to mind David's situation with Bathsheba, probably
with good reason as King David was so much a type and shadow for Jesus. He
asks himself if he made David's mistake.
10. "Grind for another" means to prepare flour, or in
other words be a wife or servant for another. In effect he says, "I
can't imagine committing a sin and thereby failing my God. If I did, how
could I ever answer him. If I had sinned like lusting for my neighbor's
wife, then I would not deserve to have a wife, and she would deserve
better, even another that would bow down to her as King Solomon did to
Bathsheba, in 1Kings 2:19."
12. Indeed, sexual sin can be an all-consuming fire, destroying a
15. This refers back to the servants in verse 13, and suggest that
regardless of his position, he is no better than they are, that they
should receive respect from him.
16 If I have withheld the poor from their desire,
Or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail,
17 Or eaten my morsel myself alone, and the fatherless hath not eaten
18 (For from my youth he was brought up with me, as with a father,
And I have guided her from my mother's womb;)
19 If I have seen any perish,
For want of clothing,
Or any poor go without covering,
20 And if his loins have not blessed me,
As if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep,
21 If I lifted up mine hand against the fatherless, when I saw help in
22 Then let mine arm fall from my shoulder blade, and let mine arm be broken
from the bone.
23 For destruction from God was a terror to me; because of his highness I
could not endure.
24 If I have made gold mine hope, or said to fine gold, Thou art my
25 If I rejoiced because my wealth was great,
And because mine hand had gotten much,
16-20.Charity was his middle name. These verses not only tell of his
good deeds, but claim such charity has been a part of his life since his
birth (K.& D. pg.184). It is the fatherless, from verse 17 that he was
brought up with, that he treated as a father would. And it was the widow
of verse 16 that he has guided since his birth, or all of his life, even
that it was in-born in him. In verse 20, it is the loins of the poor that
express gratitude for a covering from him.
21. He never failed to help others, and not because he expected
something in return or because someone was watching. Jastrow explains the "gate" (pg.
307), "The gate is the place of the tribunal. The thought is the same
as above , V13-14, against taking advantage of one's influence before the
22. This is a play of words because his arms and legs hurt so much
that they are upper-most on his mind.
24. This denial of Jesus reminds us of what Judas had done--seek for
riches. Verse 24a missing in LXX.
26 If I looked for the sun when it shined,
Or also the moon walking in its brightness,
27 And if mine heart has been secretly enticed,
And mine hand hath touched my mouth with a kiss,
28 This also would be an iniquity to be punished by the judge;
Because then I would have denied the God that is above.
29 I did not rejoice at the ruin of him that hated me,
Or lift up myself when evil came upon him;
30 Neither did I suffer my mouth to sin,
By wishing a curse to his soul;
31 Nor say what the men of my tabernacle said,
Oh that we had of his flesh, we cannot be satisfied!
32 And the stranger did not lodge in the street,
For I opened my door to the traveler.
33 Nor did I cover my transgression,
Even as Adam, by hiding mine iniquity in my bosom?
26-27. In addition to the obvious references to the pagan practices of
worshiping the sunrise and the moon, especially the moon by throwing it a
kiss, these verses allude to Jesus and his betrayal through a secret
conspiracy. It was done at night in the light of a full moon, with Jesus
fully aware of it, and by a kiss from "his hand." Judas was the
hand, like a helping-hand, a right-hand man, or a ranch-hand. Jesus and
the disciples had just completed their Passover feast. It was held on the
first Sabbath, after the first full moon, after the summer solstice. Judas
said, "Whomever I shall kiss, that same is he; hold Him fast."
Matt. 26:48; Mark 14:43; Luke 22:47. Some consider Judas' deed to be
hypocritical. Isn't that the understatement of all time? How could any act
be more hypocritical, especially when he used a kiss (an act expressing
love and devotion) to betray Jesus? Verse 27a is missing in the LXX.
29-30. Jesus says that he didn't rejoice over the death of Judas,
or feel lifted up by his early death; neither did he ask for his life from
31. Neither did he say what his clan said toward him (the Jews were
of his tabernacle or clan). They wanted more than physical punishment;
they wanted his life. "When the chief priests and officers saw him,
they cried out, saying, crucify him, crucify him" (John 19:6).
32. Jesus was the perfect example of hospitality and charity.
33. "I am innocent and have hidden nothing. The fear of God
has not kept me silent as it did Adam, who had to be searched out by
34 Did I fear from the great multitude? or did the contempt of families
That I kept my silence, and went not out of the door.
35 Oh, that someone would give me a hearing,
That the Almighty would answer me,
That mine adversary would draw up a true bill.
36 Surely, I would carry it upon my shoulder, or bind it as a crown.
37 I would declare to him the number of my steps, as a prince would I go
near to him.
38 If my land cry against me, or the furrows likewise thereof complain,
39 If I have eaten the fruits thereof without making payment,
Or caused the owners thereof to lose their life,
40 Then let thistles grow instead of wheat,
And cockles instead of barley.
The words of Job are ended.
34. He didn't fear the great multitudes that were made up of the
"families," or clans, as the NIV reads, which means the Jewish
family. Cf. Psa. 3:6--"I will not be afraid of ten thousands of
people, that have set themselves against me found about."
35-37. Because he was pure, the "true bill" (HB) would be
plain white with nothing written down, worthy to be worn over the shoulder
as a temple robe, or bound around his head as a diadem--a crown of
righteousness. The Hebrew Bible says, "Tie it around me for a
wreath," which should be recognized as the temple sash, part of the
temple clothing. It would be clean enough to wear in a presentation to the
Father, which is where temple clothes are worn. Compare his own
description of these robes of righteousness, in 29:14. Verse 35 is missing
in the LXX.
38-40. HB, "If my land (my field or my home), or the
furrows (the people), cry against me, it is because I have failed. If I
haven't made payment for their sins, thereby causing them to lose their
eternal lives or be disappointed, as one translation has it. If that is
the case, then, the whole earth is utterly wasted!" There will be no
"wheat," only tares, thistles, and cockles. (compare Prov. 1:19
Elihu now comes from nowhere (as far as the story of Job is concerned) to
tell us of the great truths that he has learned. He says he is young, and
has learned new wisdom from the Father. Eagerly, he wishes to explain, and
assures us that it is the truth and not said to just gain favor with God.
J.R. Dummelow points out the problems with Elihu's unexpected entry (pg.
313): "His presence comes upon the reader with surprise, he is not
mentioned with the other friends in the Prologue, and we have had no
intimation that he has all the while been listening to the debate. It is
still more remarkable that he is not mentioned at the close. Here God
passes judgment of Job and the friends, and it is strange that Elihu is
ignored. If the author intended Elihu to represent the true view, why did
he not represent God as praising him, if not why is he not condemned with
the friends? This silence is the more surprising in view of the contents
of the speeches. Elihu blames the friends for the ineffectiveness of their
attack, yet he adopts somewhat the same attitude and repeats their
arguments, though passing, to some extent, beyond them. He elaborates the
thought that suffering is discipline, and may actually be an expression of
the goodness of God. etc." These are very great problems for the
scholars, and unanswered leave any reader up in the air, doubting the
worth of this poem. But when you know that Job is Jesus in the allegory,
and has just died (last verse of last chapter) and been resurrected, and
now takes on the role of Elihu, then, these problems disappear. In other
words, Elihu speaks for Job for the moment, even speaks to Job, all to
maintain the continuity of the story of Job. This explains why Elihu comes
and goes so quickly, and even why Job again speaks after his "last
words" of chapter 32.
1 So these three men ceased to answer Job,
Because he was still righteous in his own eyes.
2 Then was kindled the wrath of Elihu,
Son of Barachal the Buzite,
Of the kindred of Ram.
Against Job was his wrath kindled,
Because he justified himself rather than God.
1-5. Jesus maintained till the end that he was righteous, and of
course he was; so there was nothing wrong with his being "righteous
in his own eyes." Elihu appears in the symposium for the first time
because he represents the resurrected Jesus. Otherwise, the poet could be
considered amiss for not mentioning his presence before.
2e. Jesus justified himself only in the sense that he claimed he
was pure, never did he do it at the expense of God. He knew God would find
him righteous, if He would only come forth and examine him. Most of this
chapter is simply fill, to maintain the surface story of Job.
3 Also against his three friends was his wrath kindled,
Because they had found no answer but still had condemned Job.
4 Now Elihu had waited till Job had spoken because they were elder then
5 When Elihu saw that there was no answer from these men, then his wrath
6 And Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite answered, and said,
I am young and ye are very old;
Wherefore I was afraid and durst not show mine opinion.
7 I thought, Days should speak, a multitude of years should teach wisdom.
8 But it is the spirit, the inspiration of the Almighty, that giveth all men
9 Great men are not always wise, neither do the aged understand judgment.
10 Therefore I said to them, Hearken; I will show mine opinion.
11 Behold, I waited and gave ear to your reasons,
Whilst ye searched out what to say.
12 Yea, I attended unto your words, and behold,
None of you could convince Job or answer his words
6. According to Strong's Exhaustive Bible Concordance,
"Elihu" means God/is; "Barachel" means God has
blessed; "Buzite" means contemned (to view with contempt, or
despise); and "Ram" means high. So, if we rewrite verse two with
these meanings it comes out something like this: "Then was kindled
the wrath of one who is God, the son who God has blessed, who is also
contemned (by man), of the kindred of the High."
7-9. Jesus has learned that time and experience doesn't necessarily
bring wisdom. True knowledge comes from God, regardless of one's age or
10. "I would like to be heard, even though I am young."
12. He had listened carefully to their words. They didn't convince
him, probably because his attention was focused on his suffering, and the
reason why God had forsaken him.
13 Lest ye should say, We have found wisdom;
God will thrust him down, not man.
14 He hath not directed his words against me,
Neither will I answer him with any of your speeches.
15 They were amazed and answered no more: they left off speaking.
16 I waited until they spake not again, but stood still and answered me no more.
17 I said, now I will answer my part; I also will show mine opinion.
18 For I am full of matter; the spirit within me compels me.
19 Behold, my belly is as wine which hath no vent;
It is ready to burst like new bottles.
20 I will speak,
That I may be refreshed;
I will open my lips and answer.
21 Let me not, I pray, accept any man's person,
Neither let me give any flattering titles unto a man.
22 For I know not how to give flattering titles;
My maker would soon take me away.
18-19. He expresses a need to speak, as he is full of words, much like
anyone full of new knowledge. But a second meaning, based on the analogy
of fermenting food that produces carbon dioxide gas in quantities great
enough to burst bottles, tells of internal congestion, etc. that has
caused bloating, and possibly refers to his belly being full of blood and
water from a ruptured heart. A bottle in those days referred to an animal
skin that was sewn into a container, like a wine flask.
21. "To accept a man's person" is to show partiality
because of rank, position, looks, etc. The scriptures have told us often
that God is not a respecter of persons, which means that He will not show
partiality towards anyone.
Elihu begins by telling us there is no question about what he knows
because it came from God. Then he informs us that he is flesh and blood
just as we are and to not fear him; his hands will reassure. He corrects
his earlier claim that God was against him, first, by explaining that God
doesn't account to us for his actions, and second, that there is a reason
for suffering other than punishment (e.g., to turn man away from pride,
v17). He goes on to say that through the suffering a ransom has been
found, or in other words, Jesus has proven himself perfect. Then he goes
on to explain what that means to a repentant sinner.
1 Wherefore Job, I pray thee, hear my speeches and hearken to all of my
2 Behold, now I have opened my mouth, and my tongue hath spoken.
3 My words shall be of the uprightness of mine heart,
And my lips shall utter knowledge clearly.
4 The Spirit of God hath made me;
The breath of the Almighty hath given me life.
5 If thou canst, answer, set thy words in order and take thy stand.
6 Behold, I am according to thy wish in God's stead; I also am formed out
7 Behold, my terror shall not make thee afraid, neither shall mine hand be
heavy upon thee.
1-5. i.e., My words are true, and you must listen to all of them
because I speak for God. Prepare an argument, if you can.
6. He says, "Behold, I am made from the dust (clay) of the
earth just as you are." It is as though he were showing himself to
the Apostles after his resurrection, reassuring them and saying: "A
spirit hath not flesh and bones (clay), as ye see me have" (Luke
7. To settle the Apostles down, he said, "Peace be unto
you" (Luke 24:36), and showed them the scars in his hands, which of
course, was not "heavy upon thee.". "When He had said this
he showed them his hands and side (John 20:19-20).
8 Surely thou hast spoken in mine hearing, and I heard the voice of thy
9 I am clean without transgression; I am innocent, neither is there
iniquity in me;
10 Behold, he findeth occasions against me, he counteth me for his enemy.
11 He putteth my feet in stocks, he marketh all of my paths.
12 Behold, in this thou art not just;
I will answer thee,
That God is greater than man.
13 Wherefore dost thou strive against him?
For he giveth not account of any of his matters.
14 For God speaketh once, yea even twice,
Yet man perceiveth it not.
15 In a dream, in a vision of the night,
When deep sleep falls, in slumbering upon the bed,
16 Then he openeth the ears of men and sealeth their instructions;
17 That he may withdraw man from his purpose,
And cut off pride from a man,
18 And keep back his soul from the pit,
And his life from perishing by the sword.
8. Yes, that is what you said, I heard it clearly.
9. Jesus had claimed all along that he was innocent, and of course,
it was that innocence that caused him to ask for a hearing from God. He
steadfastly maintained his innocence, for example: in 6:24; 10:7; 13:18;
13:23; 23:10; 27:5; and 31:6.
10. K&D report (pg. 220) that Elihu makes use of a word that
did not ever occur in Job's mouth, namely, "alienation," which
means to hinder, restrain, or turn aside. But even if he didn't use that
exact word, he certainly covered all of those meanings in 10:13-17; 19:11;
and 30:21. In 10b, he quotes 19:11 almost perfectly.
11. This quote is nearly verbatim, from 13:27.
12. "not just" in the sense of "not right."
Jesus now knows that he had not been right. God was not against him.
13. Jesus now knows that by asking for a hearing he was in effect
asking God for an accounting of "his matters."
14-15. Listed among the times that God speaks to His children is
the significant "slumbering upon the bed," which is a play on
the analogy made earlier of placing Jesus on the cross, which was like
being laid on his bed. The analogy was even extended in that Jesus
referred to that day of darkness as night time. (cf, note, 24:23). Verses
14b, 15b and 16a are missing in the LXX.
17-18. This applies to men in general, but to Jesus in particular,
especially now, in that all of his great, unequalled achievements of this
earth that could generate pride, had to be given back.
19 He is also chastened with pain upon his bed,
And the multitude of strong pains inside his bones,
20 So that his life abhorreth bread and his soul dainty meat.
21 His flesh is consumed away that it cannot be seen;
And his bones that were not seen, stick out.
22 Yea, his soul draweth near to the grave,
His life to the messengers of death.
23 If there be a messenger,
One among a thousand,
To show unto man his uprightness,
24 Then he is gracious unto him, and he saith,
Deliver him from going to the pit, for I have found a ransom.
19. This uses the same analogy of verse 15. God has humbled Jesus
through pain and suffering while his absolute pureness was being proven.
Verse 19b is missing in the LXX.
20. Jesus was sick and in great pain, even unto death.
"Bread" and "dainty meat" represents spiritual
knowledge, even that which his friends were trying to tell him, but the
apparent injustice, and especially the absence of God over-rode all else.
He was close to the pit, but still remained obedient to God.
21. It is significant enough to consider Jesus' emaciated condition
as described by these lines, but it could, and probably does mean much
more. "Flesh" is used in the Old Testament to represent
knowledge, as in Ezek. 37:8 "and the bones came together . . .the
sinews and the flesh came upon them." or Micah 3:2 "Who hate the
good, and love the evil; who pluck . . .their flesh from off their
bones;" (Also cf. Eccl. 4:5; Zech. 14:12; Psa. 38:3; Psa. 109:24.)
22. K&D explains that the KJV "destroyers" means
destroying angels. The New International Version reads "messengers of
death" which means the same thing, but the length of the line fits
23. K&D, NIV, and the RSV all change "messenger" to
"angel," which means a messenger of God, as it is used so often
in the Old Testament—"The angel of Jehovah." (cf. Gen. 48:15;
Psa. 34:7.) In the allegory, God is extending forgiveness to Job through a
mediator, one above the many thousands. This of course, is Jesus himself.
In the case of Jesus the Father is the angel that shows unto all men
Jesus' righteousness, that Jesus has proven on the cross.
24 Stop, that is enough." It is finished; Jesus is the ransom
25 His flesh shall be fresher than a child's, he shall return to the
days of his youth.
26 He shall pray unto God, and he will be favorable unto him,
And he shall see his face with joy;
For he will render unto man,
27 He looketh upon men and they sing:
I have sinned and perverted that which is right,
But his forgiveness and not justice shall be my delight.
28 He will deliver my soul from going down to the pit,
And all my life I shall rejoice in his light.
29 Lo, these things worketh God with man,
30 To bring back his soul from the pit,
To be enlightened with the light of the living.
31 Mark well, O Job, hearken unto me; hold thy peace and I will speak.
32 If thou hast anything to say now, answer me; speak, for I desire to justify
33 If not, hearken unto me; hold thy peace and I shall teach thee wisdom.
25. Now will come his resurrection and eternal glory.
26. Jesus shall enter into God's presence with joy and be qualified
to extend forgiveness to mankind, thereby satisfying justice.
26cd. God will render Jesus' righteousness to man.
27-28. These lines have been deduced from what K& D said about
them on pages 235-236, and comparing this song to the song in the night
that the LORD gave the Israelites in Deut. 31:17 through 32:43. They were
instructed by Moses to sing it during their period of darkness, which
means during their long apostasy. Both the RVS and K&D use the word
"sing" in their translations of this line (cf, 35:10--"who giveth songs in the night.") The Hebrew Bible reads,
"declares" and explains that the meaning is uncertain. Because
of Jesus' righteousness (from verse 26), man can now say: "I have
sinned, but I do not have to suffer the consequences. K&D reads,
"And it was not recompensed to me." The Hebrew Bible reads,
"But I was not paid back for it." The NIV reads, "But I did
not get what I deserved." From all of these, it is clear that the
line (27c) means that although he has sinned, and as a consequence expects
punishment for it, he will receive forgiveness instead. Our line is in
keeping with that same idea. Justice can now be overridden by mercy."
(Cp. Psalms 103:10).
29-30. God can now extend mercy to man, to forgive him of his
transgressions and save him from the spiritual death that would follow
31-33. These lines are for the benefit of the allegory.
Elihu repeats himself somewhat, explaining that God cannot be unrighteous,
and weaves into the explanation a lesson in the law of the harvest, and
how it pertains to individuals as well as to nations. He confesses Job
spoke without knowledge, but now desires that Job were tried unto the end
for the benefit of wicked men.
1 Furthermore Elihu answered and said,
2 Hear my words, O Ye wise men,
And give ear unto me, ye that have knowledge.
3 For the ear trieth words as the mouth tasteth meat.
4 Let us choose to us judgment, know among ourselves what is good.
5 For Job hath said, I am righteous, and God hath taken away my judgment.
6 Should I lie against my right? for my wound is incurable without any transgression.
7 What man is like Job, who drinketh up scorning like water?
8 Which goeth in company with workers of iniquity,
And walketh with wicked men?
9 For he hath said,
It profiteth a man nothing,
That he should delight himself with God.
3-4. Verses 3-4 are missing in the LXX.
5-6. Jesus had claimed his innocence all along, and had asked to be
examined by God, who would have to declare him guiltless. He had to say it
or be hypocritical, regardless of how much the suffering testified to the
contrary. He had the right because he honestly knew of no sin that he had
7. Indeed, what man in all the world is like Jesus, who "drank up
scorning" as easily as if drinking water. He didn't even reply to his
scorners, "He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not
his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before
her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth" (Isa. 53:7)(cf,
Matt. 26:63; 27:12-14.).
8. It might seem strange that being on his feet on the cross would be
considered "walking with wicked men," but consider that he was
accused of associating with sinners, or walking with wicked men by the
Pharisees (See Matt. 9:12.); This also refers to the two thieves on each
side of Jesus: "Then were there two thieves crucified with him. . .
" (Matt. 27:38). They were "walking" on each side of him.
9. Jesus did not say it quite this way. He suggested that there was no
reason to go on trying to please God, if he had already sinned. (cf.
10 Therefore hearken unto me all ye men of understanding.
Far be it from God that he should do wickedness,
And from the Almighty to commit iniquity.
11 For the work of a man shall he render unto him,
And cause every man to find according to his own way.
12 Yea, surely of a truth, God will not do wickedly,
Neither will the Almighty pervert judgment.
13 Who hath given him charge of the earth?
Who hath disposed the whole world?
14 If he set his heart upon man,
If he gather unto himself his spirit and his breath,
15 Then all flesh shall perish, and man shall turn again unto dust.
16 If now thou hast understanding, hear this; hearken to the voice of my
17 Shall even he that hateth right govern? and wilt thou condemn him that
is most just?
18 Is it fit to say to a king, Thou art wicked? and to princes, Ye are
19 How much less unto him that accepteth not the persons of princes,
Nor regardeth the rich man more than the poor?
For all are the work of his hands.
10. Wickedness and wrongdoing are "far" from God, so far that they
are absolutely out of the question.
11. Blessings or punishments are the result of our actions, all according
to the law of the harvest. "They that plow iniquity and sow
wickedness, reap the same" (Job 4:8). cf. Mosiah 7:30.
12. Referring to verse five, God could not have deprived Job of justice,
or He would cease to be God.
13. This is a very strange question to anyone that doesn't understand the
relationships between Jesus Christ, Jehovah, and the Father, Elohim. To
know this relationship is to know that the Father gave Jehovah, or Jesus
Christ "charge over the whole earth."
14-15. Everything we know exists through the power and spirit of Jesus
Christ. He breathed the breath of life into Adam, and if he were to
withdraw it, all would perish. (cf. Psa. 104:29--". . .thou takest
away their breath, they die, and return to their dust.")
17. Only God, who loves "right," governs.
17b. i.e., Would you condemn God by accusing Him of injustice? which is
what Jesus has done by merely asking for a hearing.
19. God was not, nor could He have been, partial to the prince, Jesus.
Jesus had to prove his perfection.
20 In a moment shall they die,
Be troubled at midnight and pass away;
And the mighty shall be taken away without hand.
21 For his eyes are upon the ways of man,
And he seeth all his goings.
22 There is no darkness nor shadow of death,
Where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves.
23 For he will not lay upon man more than is right,
That he should enter into judgment with God.
24 He shall break mighty men without number,
And set still others in their stead.
25 Therefore, he knoweth all of their works,
And overturneth them in the night so they are destroyed.
26 He striketh them for their wickedness in the open sight of others;
27 Because they turned back from him and would not consider any of his
28 So that they cause the cry of the poor to come unto him,
And he heareth the cry of the afflicted.
29 When he giveth quietness,
Who then can make trouble for him?
And when he hideth his face, who can behold him?
Whether it be done against a nation or against one man only,
30 That the hypocrite reign not, lest the people be ensnared.
20. The Son of God, "the mighty," died, but of his own hand.
21. God sees all; whatever any man does, God knows it.
23. God cannot punish or discipline any man more than is required, or is
just, that they will never be able to challenge His judgment.
24. What is true for one is true for a nation, like the Jewish nation for
26. God has humbled them before the world.
27. God did it because they were unfaithful to him. This is similar to
Isaiah's words, "they turned away backward, and doth not
consider" (Isa. 1:3&4). They turned away from God to worship
idols. They also rejected the prophets that were sent to them, even
killing some of them. See also Jer. 17:3-5.
29. Not answering, or "hiding his face," is often the best
course for God to take, both for a nation like Israel, and for an
individual like Jesus. Verses 28-33 are missing in the LXX.
31 Surely it is meet to be said unto God,
I have borne chastisement,
And I will not offend any more;
32 That which I see not teach thou to me;
If I have done iniquity, I will do it no more;
33 It should be according to thy mind,
If thou recompense it,
Whether thou refuse, or choose,
And not I; therefore speak what thou knowest.
34 Let men of understanding tell me, and let a wise man hearken.
35 Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without
36 My desire is that Job be tried unto the end because of his answers for
37 For he addeth rebellion unto his sin, he clappeth his hands among us,
And multiplieth his words against God.
31-32. This series expresses the right attitude for anyone to have towards
God. It means to be repentant, and yield to the Lord.
33. There is no consensus between any two of the other translations. that
make any sense at all. Our version makes sense with what precedes and
follows and uses nearly the same words as the KJV. It means that if we
have the proper attitude, we would agree to let God have His way in all
things, and "not kick against the pricks." Verse 33 is missing
in the LXX.
35. This is very much in hyperbole; however, Jesus didn't know how long it would last, nor did he know he had to give back his gains.
36. This desire is the desire of all mankind, that Jesus be tried to the
very end for wicked men, for their sins. That was his answer for wicked
Elihu again puts words into Job's mouth, as he didn't say that his
righteousness was greater than God's (See 4:17), it was only a thought, or
conclusion, raised by Satan, or the result of asking for a hearing from
God. It used this way for the sake of the allegory. He points out how
silly it would be to think such a thing in the face of the wondrous doings
of God. Although this chapter applies to Jesus in the allegory, it appears
to be directed toward the wayward and pious Jews.
1 Then Elihu spake moreover, and said,
2 Thinketh thou this to be right, what thou saidst,
My righteousness is more than God's?
For thou saidst,
3 What advantage will it be unto thee?
And what profit shall I have if I be clean from sin?
4 I will answer thee and thy companions.
5 Look unto the heavens and see;
Behold the clouds,
Which are higher than thou.
6 If thou sinnest, what doest thou against him?
Or if thy transgressions be multiplied, what doest thou unto him?
7 If thou be righteous, what givest thou him? or what receiveth he of
8 Thy wickedness hurts a man as thou art, thy righteousness may profit the
son of man.
2. This was the question raised in Job four: Is Jesus more righteous than
God? Job 4 doesn't actually have Jesus say it, though; it is a conclusion
that might logically follow, just from asking for a hearing from God. It
probably originates with Satan.
3. He didn't say this either; he only might have--if he had yielded to
Satan's suggestions. Again, many Jews, after all their race has suffered
think like this; i.e., What use is it? "Cleansed" is changed to
"clean" because of Job's claim of purity all along. It would be
a contradiction if, now, he implied he had to be cleansed of sins..
4-8. The lesson here is that men advance or decline as a result of their
own doings. If we are going to learn anything, or develop an attribute, it
will be through our efforts. God can't make us something we are not. He
will help us, encourage us, guide us, but will not interfere with our
agency. If he did, that would deny us of the opportunity to grow. God is
righteousness. Men's righteousness cannot change His righteousness one way
or the other. Verses 8-9 are missing in the LXX.
9 By reason of the multitude of oppressions they make the oppressed to
They cry out by reason of the arm of the mighty of the earth.
10 But none saith, Where is God, my maker,
Who giveth songs in the night;
11 Who teacheth us more than the beasts,
And maketh us wiser than the fowls of heaven?
12 There they cry, but none giveth answer,
Because of the pride of evil men.
13 Surely God will not hear their vanity,
Neither will the Almighty take notice of it.
14 Although thou sayest that thou didst not see him,
Yet thy judgment is before him; therefore trust in him.
15 But now, because it seemeth to be not so, he hath vented his anger,
And knoweth not that it may continue in great extremity.
16 Therefore doth Job open his mouth in vain talk;
He multiplieth words without knowledge.
9. When people suffer because of men or the Almighty, they are prone to
curse God rather than ask Him for strength to endure. The Jews have
suffered a "multitude of oppressions," from the people "of
10. They not only fail to realize their God hides His face from them, or
in other words, they really don't know Him, but they also don't remember
that He gave them a song to sing during their predicted captivity and
exile in the world (Deut. 31:17 - 32:43). Now he gives them a new song,
which is found in Job 33:27.
11. It was the God of the Jews that raised
them above the level of beasts and fowls, which means above the wicked who
will not listen to God. The wicked Jews were left to the ravaging of the
beasts and fowls (See Jer. 7:33; 12:9; 15:3 etc. and Ezek.), when they
"turned back" from Him.
12-13. Verse 12a is missing in the LXX. Surely, the Jews have cried for
these many years, but God cannot answer them because of their pride. In
the allegory Jesus is seen as needing to be humbled before pride can take
14. In the allegory, Jesus had thought God wasn't aware, but now he knows
it wasn't so. In a general sense, the Jews could also think that they have
not received a fair judgment from God, but still they should trust in Him,
15. The HB reads, "But since now it does not seem so, he vents his
anger." In the allegory Jesus was angry (cf. 23:2; 18:4), and he was
surprised at the duration of the suffering. This would also apply to the
Jews, who have waited for thousands of years. For 15b the HB reads,
"He does not realize that it may be long drawn out." Either of
these translations convey the same idea; i.e., Jesus expected a quick
death, and not a lengthy ordeal. Verse 16 confirms that he was
"without knowledge" about the crucifixion. Verses 15-16 are
missing in the LXX.
Elihu explains in general terms how God deals with the righteous and the
wicked (the wicked being those who will not respond), and then changes to
talk about Jesus in particular. In verse 15, he finishes the general
discussion by explaining that oppression is used to change the wicked, but
goes on to explain that that is not the case with Jesus. He would have
been taken out of the distress had he not been paying for the sins of
others. Then he finishes with some personal advice to Jesus as if he were
still on the cross (for the sake of the allegory).
1 Elihu proceeded and said,
2 Suffer me a little and I will show,
That I have more to speak on God's behalf.
3 I will fetch my knowledge from afar,
And ascribe right to my Maker.
4 For truly my words shall not be false,
Because he that is perfect in knowledge is with thee.
5 Behold, God is mighty and he despiseth not any; he is mighty in strength
6 He preserveth not the life of the wicked, but giveth right to the poor.
7 And he withdraweth not his eyes from the righteous,
But with kings are they set on a throne;
Yea, he seateth them forever,
And they are exalted.
8 But if they be bound in fetters,
And be holden back in cords of affliction,
9 Then he showeth them their work, the transgressions they have exceeded.
1-4. Jesus understands now. "Knowledge from afar" means from all
of history, even from premortality, including that which comes from the
Fathers, ad infinitum. He declares that God has been right and no
injustice has been done. He also announces that his knowledge is perfect;
i.e., He is a God.
5. In His great might all are still treated equally. He rewards or
punishes according to strict laws, showing no partiality to anyone.
6. God does not help the wicked. He rewards the poor in spirit. Verses 6-9
are missing in the LXX.
7. The Hebrew Bible reads, "He seats them forever." The
righteous will become kings and queens, heirs to the Kingdom of God, even
carrying His name, according to Rev. 3:12, "I will write upon him the
name of my God." Because His name is God, they will be a God. (cf.
Mark 10:40; Luke 22:29-30--"where they will be "seated" with
8-10. When men become bound by Satan's chains, God tries to turn them back
10 He openeth their ear to discipline and commandeth that they return from
11 If they obey and serve him, they shall spend their days in prosperity;
And they shall live their years in pleasure.
12 But if they obey him not,
They shall perish by the sword,
And they shall die without knowledge.
13 For the hypocrites in heart heap up their wrath;
They cry not when he bindeth them.
14 They die in their youth;
Their life is among the unclean.
15 He delivereth the poor in his affliction,
And he openeth their ears in their oppression.
16 Even so would he have removed thee out of the strait,
And into a broad place where there would be no straightness;
And that which should be set on thy table should be full of fatness.
17 But thou hast fulfilled the judgment of the wicked,
Judgment and justice take hold on thee.
10-13. The unrighteous do not accept discipline; they complain and curse God.
They do not know that God disciplines those He loves, trying to change
their lives. Verses 11-13 are missing in the LXX.
14. "They die in their youth" has reference to their eternal
lives. An eternal death means that their progress is stopped short of
"exaltation." Exaltation means to become as God, in the highest
glory obtainable. Anything short of that is equivalent to a spiritual
death, and such a death is in their youth when measured against the
eternities. They will live, then, with others that are also unclean.
15. God delivers the poor in spirit because they respond to their
affliction and oppression. He gives them knowledge, blessing them in their
time of need.
16. What God does to the wicked does not apply to Jesus because of his
sinlessness. Because of his purity, God would have taken him from his
distress, and rewarded him for his goodness with a bountiful table, not
literally with food, but in metaphor, a table filled with truth and
knowledge, which would explain why God had forsaken him. Verse 16 is
missing in the LXX.
17. God would have done all that was said in verse 16, except: Jesus has
fulfilled (paid for) the judgment of the wicked. Judgment and justice will
both come to Jesus for the payment of our sins, at least for those of the
18 Because there is wrath, beware,
Lest he taketh thee away with his stroke.
And let not the greatness of the ransom mislead thee.
19 Will he esteem thy riches? No, not gold,
Nor all the forces of strength.
20 Desire not the night,
When people are cut off in place.
21 Take heed, and regard thou not iniquity,
For this, hast thou been chosen for affliction.
22 Behold, God exalteth by his power;
Who teacheth like him?
23 Who hath enjoined him his way?
Or who can say, Thou hast wrought iniquity?
24 Remember that thou magnify his work, which men can behold.
25 Every man may see it; man may behold it afar off.
18. Beware, lest wrath over the seeming injustice take you away, or (18c)
that the great significance of your sacrifice (ransom) turn your head. The
KJV reads, "then a great ransom cannot deliver thee." If we left
it like this we could still make sense of it, but the K&D version
carries more significance in terms of Jesus; that is the reason for the
19. All the wealth in the world will avail you nothing in the world to
come; don't expend your energy for worldly things.
21. The Hebrew Bible is the only translation that is consistent with
Jesus. The others don't even make sense for Job. Jesus was tried by
affliction for the iniquity of wicked men and to see if he was perfect.
23. In other words, who has ordered or enforced him his way? He is not
responsible to anyone, and is under no obligation.
26 Behold, God is great, and we know him not,
Neither can his years be searched out.
27 For he maketh small the droplets of water;
They pour down rain according to the vapor thereof,
28 Which the clouds do drop and distil out upon man abundantly.
29 Also can any understand the spreadings of the clouds,
Or the noise that comes from his tabernacle?
30 Behold, he spreadeth his light over it,
And covereth the bottom of the sea.
31 By them judgeth he the people;
He giveth unto them meat in abundance.
32 With his thick clouds he covereth over the light,
And commandeth it not to shine by the cloud that cometh betwixt.
33 The noise thereof showeth concerning it, the cattle also concerning the
27-28. In metaphor, water represents knowledge, so this series means:
"Precept upon precept, line upon line," He rains down knowledge
on all mankind, washing away ignorance and superstition for those who will
listen. The poet likens the thunderstorm to God's "sprinkling"
knowledge down on mankind (Cp. Isa. 52:15.)
29-30. Verses 29-33 are missing in the LXX. Contemplate the knowledge of
God; if it were drops of water it would fill the sea, which means
everything we need to know to gain salvation is available. God has not
left us in the dark.
31b. This parallels the same thought as 30, but with meat, or bread,
32. This has reference to the veil that is over our eyes and memory,
keeping us from remembering or seeing directly where we came from. We are
expected to learn these things through the principle of faith.
33. As if
He were a thunderstorm, we know of His existence by the flashes of light
and the noise of His voice, which represents His scriptures, the words of
His prophets. "Cattle" is used as a metaphor for people (See Job
21:10). Like cattle in a thunderstorm, the people who have heard His word,
clearly respond in a predictable way. Their actions testify of Him. The
"vapor" of the storm is water, and again represents truth and
Elihu continues (from the end of the last chapter) the analogy of God's
great power and doings being like the mighty thunderstorm. He uses the
metaphor of water, snow, and ice from the storm to explain how he both
holds back and sends out truth and knowledge to men. He embeds into this
the condition of the Jews, now, and explains where their "fair
weather" (meaning their restoration) will come from; i.e., the North,
which means from outside Israel, or in other words, from the Gentiles (Cp.
Isa. 14:31; 41:25; 43:6).
1 At this also mine heart trembleth and is moved from out of its place.
2 Hear attentively the noise of his voice, the sound that goeth out of his
3 He directeth it out under the whole heaven, his lightning unto the ends
of the earth.
4 After it a voice roareth; he thundereth with a voice of excellency;
And he will not stay them when his voice is heard.
5 God thundereth marvelously with his voice;
Great things doeth he,
Which we cannot comprehend.
6 For he saith to the snow, Be thou on earth;
Likewise to the rain, to the great rain of his strength.
7 He sealeth up the hand of every man, that all men may know his work.
8 Then the beasts go into their dens and remain in their place.
9 From out of the south cometh the whirlwind,
And cold out of the north.
1. i.e., My heart pounds and leaps from its place.
2-5. Lightning and thunder are likened to God's voice, which should not be
4b. i.e., He will not stay the lightnings and the thunder of his voice, or
in other words, He will not restrain himself or hold anything back (cf.
6. Water, in its various forms, represents truth and knowledge from God,
which He distributes slowly as a soft rain, coldly and with chastisement
as snow, or abundantly as a mighty downpour.
7. With his mighty downpour he seals up, or stops, the work of men, that
they might know His work. Verse 7 is missing in the LXX.
8. Beasts (the wicked) are silenced, and they shrink away in the face of
truth from God.
9. The "whirlwind" scattered Israel like chaff (cf. Isa. 21:1;
30:16), and out of the north (from the Gentiles) will come the
"cold" facts of their error of long ago.
10 By the breath of God frost is given,
And the breadth of the waters is straitened.
11 By watering he wearieth the thick cloud,
And scattereth his bright cloud.
12 And they are turned round about by his counsels,
That they do whatsoever he commandeth them upon the whole world.
13 He causeth it to come, whether it is for correction, or for his land, or for
14 Hearken to this, O Job; stop, and consider the wondrous works of God.
15 Dost thou know when God layeth his charge upon them,
When he caused the light of his clouds to shine?
16 Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds,
The wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge?
17 How thy garments are warm when he quieteth the earth by the south wind?
10. Verse 10a is missing in the LXX. At God's command, truth and knowledge
are frozen (straitened), or taken away from Israel.
11-13. By letting the rain come down, or by giving truth and knowledge,
God clears away the clouds, or darkness. Verses 11b, 12, 13 are missing in
15-18. Jesus does know because he did these things as Jehovah; i.e., he
brought Israel out of Egypt and made them His chosen people by giving them
His commandments (charged them) through covenant. He also "spread out
the sky" (cf. Mosiah 3:8; Isa. 40:28-- "the creator of the ends
of the earth.") under the direction and authority of the Father.
18 Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong,
And is as a molten looking glass?
19 Teach us what we shall say unto him;
For we cannot order our speech by reason of the darkness.
20 Shall it be told him that I speak? if a man speak, surely he shall be
21 And now men see not the bright light which is in the clouds,
Until the wind passeth by and cleanseth them.
22 Fair weather cometh out of the north;
With God is terrible majesty.
23 Touching the Almighty,
Him, whom we cannot find out,
He is excellent in power and in judgment;
And abundant in justice, which he will not pervert.
24 Men do therefore fear him, for he respecteth not any that are wise of
19. The Jews will have to ask how to pray to God, since they have lost
their spiritual knowledge, and are now in darkness.
20. Of course, He need not be told, and if a man does speak to God, in
sincere prayer, he will be swallowed up. Not destroyed, as we have seen
this term used before, but wrapped up, or taken in, by the love of God.
21. Now, men, meaning Israel, do not see the light of God, but they will
when the "wind" clears the view. For Jesus, it means that he did
not "see," but now it is clear.
22. This is a prophecy to the Jews, like so many by Isaiah, that peace and
truth will return to them from the north, or nations, or from the
23."Pervert" is from the K&D version and works very well.
"Afflict" (KJV) is awkward.
24. The "wise of heart" are those that think they are wise, but
really are only proud. Righteous men fear God, which means they reverence
him to the extent of keeping his commandments (cf. Psa. 25:14; 61:5; 67:7;
Eccl. 12:13--"Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the
whole duty of man.
God comes forth to finally answer Job (Jesus), and seemingly ignores the
fourth and unexpected speaker, Elihu. To scholars, this is a real problem,
and most conclude that the speeches of Elihu have been added. But knowing
that Job and Jesus are one and the same, and Elihu represents the
resurrected Jesus makes it all work. God doesn't answer Jesus' request (as
in 31:35: "Oh, . . . that the Almighty would answer me")
directly, but points out how absurd it was to ask for a hearing from the
Most High God, who can do no unrighteousness. He answers by pointing out
how really powerful and wonderful He is, but, by asking questions. He asks
Jesus if he were there, at the time of the creation of the earth, the
dwelling place for man. His answer has to be yes for every question in
this series because he was there, just as we were all there too. But the
questions are more pertinent to Jesus because he was Jehovah, the God of
the Old Testament. He accomplished the creation under the direction of the
Father, Elohim. With His questions, God reviews the creation period,
mentioning the laying of the foundations, bringing forth the sea, the
light of day, the darkness of night, water in all of its forms, the
heavens above, and finally life from the dust of the earth.
1 Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind and said,
2 Who is this that darkeneth my counsel by his words without knowledge?
3 Gird up now thy loins like a man, for I will demand of thee, and answer
4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?
Declare it, if thou hast the understanding.
5 Who laid the measures thereof?
Do thou knowest?
Or who stretched the line upon it?
6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened?
Or who hath laid the corner stone thereof,
1. Finally, the LORD comes forth to answer Jesus, out of a storm
exhibiting His great splendor; but he doesn't answer the questions Jesus
has been asking; e.g., for the Lord to declare him innocent. Instead He
asks Jesus questions about the creation, to point out His complete
omnipotence and omniscience.
3. "To gird up your loins" is to get ready for action. The
expression comes from the need to tuck up the long, lower garment at the
waist to allow freedom of movement. "Ask," "demand", "plead," " request," all come
from the same Hebrew word.
4-6. Who measured the foundation of the earth with a line? Jesus did it
all, for Jesus is the "word" that was with God. "All things
were made by him; and without him was not anything made" (John 1:3,
see also Heb. 1:10).
7 When the morning stars sang together,
And all the sons of God shouted out for joy?
8 Or who shut up the sea with doors when it brake forth,
As if it had issued out of the womb,
9 When I made the cloud the garment thereof,
And the thick darkness a swaddling band for it,
10 And brake it in my decreed place and set bars and doors?
11 And I said, Hitherto thou shalt come but not further,
And there shall thy proud waves be stayed.
12 Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days,
And caused the dayspring to know his place?
13 That it may take hold of all the earth,
That the wicked might be shaken out?
14 It is turned as clay to the seal,
Till they stand out like a garment.
15 From the wicked light is withholden,
And their upraised arm shall be broken.
16 Hast thou entered the springs of the sea?
Or hast thou walked in search of the depths?
17 Have the gates of death been opened unto thee?
Hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of death?
7. The sons of God, all of His children, meaning you and me, shouted for
joy over the Gospel plan of salvation. Compare D&C 128:23 and Job
8-11. "And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered
together unto one place, and let the dry land appear, and it was so"
(Gen. 1:9). Here, the sea represents the realm of Satan. That is why he
mentions the thick darkness that it is in. That is why he sets bars and
doors to limit it, that it cannot pass in all of its pride.
12. The parallelism teaches us that "dayspring" means
"morning," and "since thy days" means the same as
"in thy days." In other words, Has he ever commanded the
morning? "And God said let there be lights, . . . and God divided the
light from the darkness (Gen. 1:14-18).
13. The light of God always reveals the falsehoods of the wicked, or
"shakes them out."
14. As daybreak begins, the "darkness" is dispelled and things
become clear as a seal embeds itself into clay, and the wicked stand out
clearly as the colors of a garment in the light. Truth dispels lies.
15. The light of truth is denied to the wicked, with their upraised fists
in rebellion, until they humble themselves.
16-17. The depths symbolize the darkness of Satan's realm, and Christ
knows of the depths, because he drew so near to them while he was on the
cross (cf. Jonah 2:2-7; Psa. 18:5; 30:5; 69:14-15.).
18 Hast thou perceived the breadth of the earth?
Declareth it, if thou knowest it.
19 Where is the way to where light dwelleth?
As for darkness, where is the place thereof,
20 That thou shouldest track it to the bounds thereof,
That thou shouldest know the paths to the house thereof?
21 Do thou knowest it because thou wast then born?
Or because the number of thy days is great?
22 Hast thou entered the treasures of snow?
Or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail,
23 Which I have reserved against the time of trouble,
Against the day of battle and of war?
24 By what way is the wind parted,
Which scattereth the east wind upon the earth?
25 Who hath opened a watercourse for the overflowing waters,
Or a way for the lightning and the thunder?
26 To cause it to rain where no man is,
On the wilderness wherein there is no man;
27 To satisfy the thirst of desolate and waste ground,
And to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth.
28 Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?
29 Out of whose womb came the ice? the hoary frost of heaven, who gendered
30 The waters are hid as if a stone, the face of the deep is frozen?
The earth is included with dark places, as Satan rules there, too.
21. Jesus was God's firstborn in the premortal existence; therefore, he
"wast then born" and his days "is great"[er] than the
rest of God's children.
22-23. The different forms of water symbolize truth and knowledge, and
this indicates that God has great things (words) in reserve, to come forth
at a future time, to turn the world toward Him. Job could even be part of
25. As water is truth and knowledge, then Jesus has opened the way for it
to come to earth, more than anyone else.
26-27. These rains are the sprinkling of knowledge on the
"beasts" of the earth, "where no man is." The
"beasts" are not considered men until they keep God's
commandments. Beasts and plants are used to represent men, like the vine,
trees, and the wheat and tares, etc. Also cf. Psa. 1:3; 37:35; 96:12; Job
29:14; 18:16. Verses 26-27 are missing in the LXX.
28-30. The questions contain the answer, i.e., the Father. He can bring
forth knowledge like the dew, or hold it back, frozen. This is especially
true for the deep, where Satan rules.
31 Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of
32 Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in its season,
Or guide Arcturus with his sons?
33 Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven?
Canst thou set the dominion thereof on earth?
34 Canst thou send up thy voice to command the clouds,
That an abundance of water may cover thee?
35 Canst thou send lightnings that go,
And say to thee, Here we are?
36 Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts,
Or who hath given understanding to the heart?
37 Who can number the clouds in wisdom?
Or can stay the bottles of heaven,
38 When the dust groweth hard,
And clods cleave fast together?
39 Wilt thou hunt the prey of the lion?
Or fill the appetite of the young lions,
40 When they crouch in their dens,
And abide in their covert to lie in wait?
41 Who provideth for the raven his food,
When his young ones cry unto God,
And wander for lack of meat?
31-33. Verse 32 is missing in the LXX. Pleiades (of Taurus), Orion (the
hunter), Arcturus (the great bear), and Mazzaroth (unknown), are
constellations in the heavens. And indeed, Jesus was involved in their
creation. "God set lights in the heavens to divide the days and
seasons" (Gen. 1:14-19). "In its season" means "at the
right time." Arcturus's sons are "his cubs."
34. He can order and control the elements such as rain, or even send out
lightning bolts that will do his bidding, saying, "Here we are, just
as you ordered.".
36-38. Only man has wisdom of all earth's creations. "And God said,
Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have
dominion over every creeping thing." God took from the "bottles
in the sky," along with some "dust" of the earth to form
"clods", and He made man.
39-41. Satan is the lion, in metaphor, and yes, Jesus will hunt out
Satan's prey, to be saved. The young lions represent the wicked who are
not hardened in their sins, and eagerly seek "bread" and
"water." To "wait" alludes to the Hebrew marriage
custom of the bride waiting for the bridegroom, where the bride must wait
at home (as in a covert) for the groom to return. Christ is the
Bridegroom. The "raven" is the same as a hungry beast, which is
seeking after "meat" from heaven, meaning, "the word.
This chapter continues with God asking questions of Jesus, which are
designed to show how really great He is in every way; and, therefore, how
foolish it would be to think that God would turn His head away and not be
aware of Jesus' predicament. With that in mind, though, the following
questions seem rather trite if they don't have a deeper purpose than
simple questions about animals, even if it is beautiful poetry. Anybody of
that time could answer these questions without much difficulty, and to
have God speak them just now, when Jesus would have been looking for
something of importance, would be a real insult to Jesus and unworthy of
this magnificent poem. They have to represent something much more
important to God than beautiful poetry about animals. Clearly God's prime
interest is in mankind, not animals, for He told Moses, "For behold,
this is my work and my glory--to bring to pass the immortality and eternal
life of man" (Moses 1:39).
1 Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth?
Or canst thou mark the season when the hinds do calve?
2 Canst thou number the months that they fulfill?
Or knowest thou when they bring forth?
3 That they bow themselves,
And bring forth their young,
And they cast off their sorrows?
4 Their young ones are in good liking.
They grow up strong with plenty of corn;
They go forth and return not back.
1-4. Verse 1a is missing in the LXX. These questions are asked from the
perspective of the eternities; that is, from God's perspective: Do you
know when the earth (rock) will be ready for man (wild goat) to go down
and produce good works? when they will go down and come back ? Think of
the wild goats as disciples of Christ (the rock), or being the disciples
teaching on this earth ( rock).
2. Do you know how long they will be in bringing followers to Christ, or
3. When they humble themselves before God, and teach their
"calves" to do the same?
4. If their calves also bow (humble themselves) they, too, will be in good
standing with God, because they will have grown up with corn (bread of
life). They will grow and progress in the Gospel and not return to sin.
5 Who hath sent out the wild ass free?
Or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?
6 Whose house I have made a wilderness, the barren land his dwelling
7 He scorneth the multitude of the city, neither regardeth he the crying
of the driver.
8 The high mountains is his pasture; he searcheth after every green thing.
9 Will the wild ox be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib?
10 Canst thou bind the wild ox with his band to the furrow?
Or will he harrow the valleys after thee?
11 Wilt thou trust him,
Because his strength is great?
Or wilt thou leave thy labor to him?
12 Wilt thou believe him,
That he will bring home thy seed and gather it into thy barn?
13 Gavest thou the goodly wings to the peacocks,
Or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?
5-8. All men who are separated from God by sin can be thought of as a wild
ox, which is all of us. He comes into the world, which is a wilderness and
a barren land, compared to being with God--mostly in terms of knowledge.
This kind of man is a natural rebel at first, against the
"driver" (God). This planet should be called "sea"
instead of "earth because of the small amount of land compared to the
large amount of water. Because of that, what little bit of land that
sticks up is regarded as a rock or mountain (many places in the scriptures
the land is referred to as islands--cf. Psa. 24:1-3), where man will search
out the truth (green thing), which promotes eternal life. Verse 8 is
missing in the LXX.
9-12. "Unicorn" has been changed to "wild ox" because
it has definitely been determined to be the meaning of the Hebrew word
(See Jastrow pg. 350, note 89). The wild ox represents Satan, and these
question become quite clear in that light. All of these question get an
answer of "No," but should be appreciated because they contrast
Satan with Jesus, who can be trusted. And yes, he would harrow the valleys
"after thee," and in fact, he gave up his life "searching
13-18. What is more common than the proud, vain peacock? That is the
subject of these lines. Like the peacock, the ostrich also acts proudly,
but also does not regard her eggs once they are laid, so she is like a
proud person who has little regard for anything of real value. If their
children are not guided and looked after, a wild beast (evil person) will
surely prey (break) on them.
14 Which leaves her eggs in the earth,
And warmest them in the dust?
15 She forgets a foot may crush them,
Or that the wild beast may break them.
16 She is hardened against her young,
As though they were not hers.
Her labor is in vain without fear,
17 Because God hath deprived her of wisdom,
Neither hath he imparted to her understanding.
18 What time she lifteth up herself on high,
She scorneth the horse and his rider.
19 Hast thou given the horse his strength?
Hast thou clothed his neck as with thunder?
20 Canst thou make him afraid as the grasshopper?
The glory of his nostrils is terrible.
21 He paweth in the valley,
And rejoiceth in his strength;
He chargeth to meet the armed men.
22 He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted,
Neither turneth he from the sword.
23 The quiver rattleth against him,
And also the glittering spear and shield.
16c. Surely, her labor is vanity if it is performed without fear
(reverence) of God.
17. To those who are wicked, even that knowledge that they have will be
taken away from them ("For behold, thus saith the Lord God: I will
give unto the children of men line upon line, precept upon precept, here a
little and there a little; and blessed are those who hearken unto my
precepts, and lend an ear unto my counsel, for they shall learn wisdom;
for unto him that receiveth I will give more; and from them that shall
say, We have enough, from them shall be taken away even that which they
have" (2 Nephi 28:30).
18. When the proud lift themselves up they invariably scorn the
"horse and rider," which means Jesus Christ, who will return on
a horse (Cp. Rev. 19:11-13 "And I saw heaven opened, and behold a
white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in
righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of
fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no
man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in
blood: and his name is called The Word of God."
19-23. The war horse represents Satan. He revels in his strength, which is
very great, but nothing in the eyes of God. He can't be made to fear God,
and be concerned for his eternal soul. He is bent on making war on His
children, to destroy them.
24 He swalloweth up ground with fierceness and rage,
Neither does he turn aside at the sound of the trumpet.
25 He said with the trumpets, Aha; he smelleth the battle afar off,
The thunder of the captains, and the shouting.
26 Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom,
And stretch her wings toward the south?
27 Doth the eagle soar at thy command, and make her nest on high?
28 She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, upon a crag of rock, and a strong
29 From thence she seeketh her prey, that her eyes behold afar off.
30 Her young ones also drink up blood,
And where the slain are, there is she.
24. Satan is said to be king of the world, which is how he
"swalloweth ground" (destroying it). The trumpets of judgment
day do not cause him to fear.
26-28. The hawk and the eagle represent righteous men, who can soar with
the eagles if they are obedient to God. They would be building their house
on a "rock" (Jesus Christ) on high, the very strongest place to
build, and not on sand ("And the rain descended, and the floods came,
and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was
founded upon a rock (Matt. 7:25). "And everyone that heareth these
sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man,
who built his house upon the sand; and the rains descended, and the floods
came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell; and great
was the fall of it" (Matt. 7:34, JST).
29. From her position on the "rock" it is easy to see the
"prey" (others in need of the Gospel).
30a. The blood has to do with taking of the sacrament, which is done in
remembrance of the blood of Jesus. Matthew, an apostle of Jesus reports,
"And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is
shed for many for the remission of sins" Matt. 26:27-28).
30b&c. This is a Jewish proverbial saying which isn't clear until you
read the JST: "And now I show unto you a parable. Behold, wheresoever
the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together; so likewise
shall mine elect be gathered from the four quarters of the earth (Matt.
24:28 JSV)(cf. Luke 17:37; Matt, 1:27; Mk. 13:30). The slain are the ones
being converted. They must die, or give up their old ways, or, in other
words, be removed from the ranks of the wicked.
For the sake of the allegory, God asks Jesus again if he understands all
that has happened to him, and if he isn't just like Him now. He says, 'Put
on your robes of righteousness for this great success. Then behold your
fallen brother, Satan, who has chosen another way (v15). Consider some of
his characteristics (in contrast to yours).'
1 Moreover the LORD answered Job and said,
2 Shall he that contendeth with the Almighty instruct him?
He that reproveth his God, let him answer it.
3 Then Job answered the LORD, and said,
4 Behold, I am vile;
What shall I answer thee?
I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.
5 Once have I spoken, but I will not speak again,
Yea, twice have I spoken, but I will proceed no further.
6 Then answered the LORD unto Job out of the whirlwind, and said,
7 Gird up thy loins now like a man; I will demand, declare thou unto me.
8 Wilt thou also disannul my judgment? Wilt thou condemn me that thou mayest be righteous?
2. Jesus has not explicitly contended with God. If he were to rebel and
take control of the situation out of anger, he would have. His great faith
in the justice of God prompted him to ask for a judgment, which, if
carried to the extreme, could be considered as contending with God. He was
sure of his innocence, and simply asked God to confirm it. But for him to
ask, even innocently, for such a hearing carries with it a connotation
that God in not in control. The question (v2) is asked (if not just to
maintain the allegory) tongue-in-cheek, or else in hyperbole.
4-5. "Vile" comes from a Hebrew word meaning also
"small" or "unworthy."
8. This would be the extreme consequence of demanding a hearing, but Jesus
didn't do that. He came to the conclusion that he must have sinned, and
then died of a broken heart as a result.
9 Dost thou have an arm like unto God? Or canst thou thunder with a voice like him?
10 Then deck thyself now with majesty and excellency,
And array thyself with glory and beauty.
11 Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath,
And behold all that are proud and abase him.
12 Look on every one that is proud and bring him low,
And tread down the wicked in their place.
13 Hide them in the dust together,
Bind their faces in secret.
14 Then will I also confess unto thee,
That thine own right hand can save thee.
15 Behold now the behemoth,
Which I made with thee;
He eateth green grass as an ox.
9-14. "An arm like God" means "Is he as powerful as God?
The answer is yes, for he is Jehovah. Jesus has accomplished all that the
Father asked, and now is exalted and given power equal to God.(cf. Matt.
28:18; Heb. 2:8; and Eph. 1:22.)
11. Jesus is admonished to be filled with wrath toward sin and sinners. It
is expressed in hyperbole, and means to be dedicated toward the
destruction of sinners, to work to change them.
12. As pointed out in the introduction, one of the important aspects of
Jesus' trial on the cross was to prevent any pride from even starting, as
a result of his great achievements. These lines echo the importance of
eliminating pride, even suggesting that pride could have been a problem
13b. This line parallels 13a, and means, cover (bind) their faces below,
in the grave.
15-24. Now Satan's characteristics are pointed out by comparing them to
the water-ox, or hippopotamus. His hate and anger are contrasted to the
love and sacrificing that the exalted Jesus Christ has just done for
mankind. He sacrificed his life out of love for all mankind.
15. Tearing and ripping, he feeds on grass (all flesh is grass). K&D
explains that it means green grass, even green barley (contrasted with
tares). "Green grass" is rather significant in that it suggests
the spiritually young, or those that are weak in their testimonies of God.
They are Satan's prey, even the very same that he would like to
16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins,
And his force is in the navel of his belly.
17 He moveth his tail like a cedar;
The sinews of his thighs are wrapped together.
18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass;
His bones are like bars of iron.
19 He is one of the first of the ways of God,
He that made him can make his sword to approach him.
20 Surely the mountains bring him forth food,
Where the beasts of the field play.
21 He lieth under the shady trees,
In the covert of the reeds and fens.
22 Shady trees cover him with their shadow,
The willows of the brook compass him about.
23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not;
He trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.
24 Can he be taken by his eyes? his nose pierceth through snares.
16-18. His force and power come from just sheer weight, all brawn and no
brain; nevertheless, he is very powerful and needs to be feared.
17b. "stones" seems to make no sense at all, whereas
"thighs" (K&D uses "legs") knit together to give
great strength blends in with the context.
19. K&D says (pg. 361), "God's ways is the name given to God's
operations as the creator of the world in ver. 19a (comp. ch. xxvi.14,
where His acts as the Ruler of the world are included);" Satan, a son
of the morning, was one of God's first children, after Jesus who was His
19b. Although Satan is powerful, God has complete control over him.
20. This is related to verse 15, meaning the same thing. He feeds on
beasts on the Lord's mountain, tearing them down and down.
21-22. Satan is always found in the shadows, seeking darkness; and being
the serpent of the deep, the symbol of the water-ox makes a good parallel
since he hides in the deep out of the sunlight.
23-24. Since water is used metaphorically for knowledge, this means he
thinks he can absorb an unlimited amount of knowledge, or that he already
knows all; at least all that anyone needs to know. He has no concern about
it (hasteth not). He thinks he deserves to be in God's place, that he
Satan's characteristics continue, but now are compared to the crocodile.
The poetic descriptions are beautiful and factual, but the real message is
about Satan. The crocodile is another powerful monster of the deep, like
Satan. It even begins by calling him "leviathan," which is used
many times in the scriptures for the "serpent" of the deep,
1 Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook?
Or catch his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down?
2 Canst thou put a hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a
3 Will he make many supplications unto thee? and will he speak soft words
4 Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant
1-2. These refer to ways of catching fish, etc. The "serpent"
cannot be lured in or caught like others, not like the "fishers of
men" might do. He is hardened in his wicked ways, and will not be
3. How could a crocodile make supplications to thee, or speak flattering
words to thee? It might be absurd to expect a crocodile to speak, but
Satan will "make supplications" (bring temptations) to thee all
of your life. He is the master of using "soft words" (flattering
4. Satan does not make covenants with anyone. In fact he has a long record
of broken promises. It is God that makes covenants with his people,
promises of great blessings for keeping His commandments (cf. Gen. 6:18;
9:15; 17:7-14; Psa. 103:17-18; and Deut. 4:13-- "And he declared unto
you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten
commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.").
4b. No one would want Satan for a servant forever even if such a thing
were possible. It might seem strange at first to think that we are
choosing Jesus as our servant, but that is what we have done when we take
upon us his name and accept his atonement in our behalf. Jesus also
demonstrated this when he washed the disciples feet (John 13:5-14). On
another occasion he explained, "And he sat down, and called the
twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall
be last of all, and servant of all" (Mark 9:35); also "And
whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all (Mark
10:44)." Verse 4 is missing in the LXX.
5 Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or bind him for thy maidens?
6 Shall thy companions make a banquet out of his parts?
And shall they divide him among the merchants?
7 Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons?
Or his head with fish spears?
8 Lay thine hand upon him;
Remember the battle,
And you will do it no more.
9 Behold, any hope in him is in vain.
Shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?
10 None is so fierce that they dare stir him up.
Who then is able to stand before me?
11 Who hath given, that I should repay him?
Whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine.
12 I will not conceal his parts, nor his power,
Nor his comely proportion.
13 Who can discover the face of his garment?
Or who is he that can come to him with his double bridle?
14 Who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible all round about.
15 His scales are as his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.
16 One is so near to another that no air can come between.
17 They are joined one to another, they stick together,
That they cannot be sundered.
5-8. The central idea of these verses is that Satan is a very dangerous
being, and is not to be played with nor fooled with in any way. If we were
to do so, we would never choose to repeat a battle with him.
9. Hope grows out of faith, and it is useless to have faith or hope in
Satan. Hope should be placed in God (Psa. 71:5, "For thou art my
hope, O Lord GOD: thou art my trust from my youth."
10. If there isn't anyone that would stand up to Satan's strength, then
who is there that would stand up to God--He, who defeated Satan and is
responsible for the creation of everything under the whole heaven.
11. No sense can be made for the KJV as it stands. "Who hath given," is
the meaning arrived at by RSV, and K&D, and seems to work well, and
would mean: "God is not beholden to anyone because everything is
12-17. These verse repeat the idea that Satan is so "armored" in
pride, even invincible (closely sealed) that he cannot be influenced to
change. Not even by God.
18 By his sneezings a light doth shine;
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
19 Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of flame leap out.
20 Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as from out of a seething pot or
21 His breath kindleth coals, and flame goeth out of his mouth.
22 In his neck there remaineth great strength,
And sorrow is joy before him.
23 The flakes of his flesh join together;
They are firm in themselves and cannot be moved.
24 His heart is as firm as a stone, yea, as hard as a piece of nether
25 When he raiseth up himself, even the mighty are afraid of him;
By reason of their breakings they purify themselves.
18-21. The central thought of these verses is the hate and rage that Satan
holds within himself. After reading these verses, it's easy to see why God
chose the serpent or dragon of the deep as the symbol for Satan.
22. Does a crocodile have a neck at all? If he does would it be fair to
say that he is stiff-necked?
22b. The act of killing, or bringing sorrow to his prey, is seen as joy to
the crocodile In the same way, when Satan destroys God's children it
brings him happiness; therefore, great sorrow is seen as joy by him.
23. This is a repetition of the thought expressed by verses 12-17.
24. Satan is as hard-hearted as is possible to be. A nether millstone is
the lower stone, chosen especially for its hardness. Contrast this with
Jesus' statement: "For God maketh my heart soft" (Job 23:16).
25. Yea, the spiritually mighty (The Saints, His Holy Ones) do fear Satan,
and they "purify themselves" by partaking of His Holy Sacrament
(Last Supper) each week. They do it in remembrance of "The
Lamb," Jesus Christ. And with "their breakings" of bread
they covenant to keep His commandments.
26 The sword that layeth at him cannot hold him,
The spear, the dart, nor the habergeon.
27 He esteemeth iron even as straw,
And brass as rotten wood.
28 The arrow cannot make him flee;
Slingstones turn into rubble with him.
29 Darts are counted as pieces of stubble to him.
He just laugheth at the shaking of a spear.
30 He has sharp stones for his undersides;
He spreadeth points upon the mire.
31 He maketh the deep to boil like a pot;
He maketh the sea like a pot of ointment.
32 He maketh a path to shine after him;
One would think the deep is hoary.
33 On earth there is not his like,
Who is made without fear.
34 He beholdeth all high things;
He is a king over the children of pride.
26-29. Satan will not yield to any assault. There is no chastisement or
discipline that has any effect on him; that is the reason he is lost,
30-31. The deep is Satan's realm, metaphorically. His constant attempts to
destroy God's children in whatever way he can, keeps the deep in turmoil,
like a crocodile does, even like some smelly mess of ointment, which is
constantly stirred up, never left to settle and clear up.
32. Satan's path is probably shiny because of his lack of progress on new
paths, moving upward. He stays at the same place, making it to shine. Or,
its shiny clean because he has swept everything away in his path.
"Hoary" means "old age," maybe even just gray or
white, like an old person's head. The shiny path could represent Satan's
attractive path leading down to hell. It looks old and reliable but is
always a counterfeit of the right path.
33. There are none of God's children that are completely without any fear
of God. Only Satan is without fear of God.
34. Those that are filled with pride (high things--as opposed to the humble
things) belong to Satan. He is their king, where Jesus Christ is the King
of the humble, or repentant.
Jesus acknowledges his suffering was necessary, and has everything
restored to him, only more so; and even that he is eligible to pray for
others, as a mediator. He meets again with "his family," the
disciples, where they acknowledge what has happened to him through their
sympathy and comforting. In verse 8, Job/Jesus is recognized by God as an
acceptable mediator for the others. All of his sons and daughters were
worthy for an inheritance (in the mansions of his Father). Note that the
pattern is particularly beautiful.
1 Then Job answered the LORD, and said,
2 I know thou canst do everything,
And no thought can be withholden from thee.
3 Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge?
Therefore have I uttered that which I understood not,
Things too wonderful for me, which I knew not.
4 Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak;
I will demand of thee; declare thou.
5 I have heard of thee by the ear,
But now mine eye seeth thee.
6 Wherefore I abhor myself,
And repent in dust,
7 And it was so,
That after the LORD,
Had spoken these words unto Job,
That the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite,
My wrath is kindled against thee and thy two friends,
For ye have not spoken that which is right as my servant Job hath.
8 Therefore take seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job,
And my servant Job shall pray for you, for him will I accept,
That I recompense not unto you according to your folly;
For ye have not spoken of me as my servant Job.
9 Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite,
And Zophar the Naamathite did go,
And do as the LORD commanded,
And the LORD accepted Job's prayer.
10 And the LORD turned the captivity of Job,
When he had prayed unto him for his friends.
The LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before.
11 Then came there unto him all his brethren and sisters,
And all they that had been of his acquaintance from before,
And did eat bread with him in his house; and they bemoaned him,
And comforted him over all the evil the LORD had brought upon him.
And every man gave him a piece of money and everyone an earring of gold.
12 So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning;
For he had fourteen thousand sheep and six thousand camels,
And a thousand yoke of oxen and a thousand she asses.
13 And he had also seven sons and three daughters.
14 He called the name of the first, Jemima,
The name of the second, Kezia,
And the name of the third, Kerenhappuch.
15 And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of
And their father gave them inheritance among their brethren.
16 After this lived Job an hundred and forty years,
And saw his sons, and his sons' sons,
Even for four generations.
17 And so Job died,
And full of days.
Note: Verse 11 in most translations appears as kesitah, which is a coin, which also is used in Geneses,
suggesting that this book might come from that era, the age of the patriarchs.
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