PART ONE OF THE BOOK OF JOB with COMMENTARY

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 CHAPTERS

2   3   4    5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21
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The Prologue, chapters one and two, sets up the allegory as a trial of a very good but ordinary man--Job. This surface story of a man suffering with boils and abandoned by his friends covers over the deeper story of the final trial of a "perfect and upright man"--Jesus. Satan takes an active part only in the prologue, and then, strangely, disappears for the rest of the story; however, all along we know he is behind the scene, trying to bring Jesus to failure.

1  There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job;
   And that man was perfect and upright,
   And one that feared God,
   And eschewed evil.
2  There were born unto him,
   Seven sons and three daughters.
3  His substance was seven thousand sheep,
   Three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen,
   And five hundred she asses, and a very great household;
   So that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east.
 
1. According to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, the name Job means hated and persecuted. Others think it came from a word root which means to shout with joy, and still others claim it signifies one who is hostilely treated, by Satan in particular. As Job is a type for Jesus, all of these apply. The writer tells us four times how good Job really is, even perfect, and this could only apply to Jesus. It should not be forgotten for the rest of the poem.
2. Job's family represents Jesus' "family," which means his disciples. (cf. Matt. 12:49--"And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!").
3. These are very large numbers, and they represent how very wealthy Jesus was in terms of spiritual strength and in the many followers who held him in such high esteem. In this regard, he was, and is, the "greatest" in all the land.

4  And his sons went and feasted in their houses, every one on his day,
   And sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them.
5  And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about,
   That Job sent for them, and sanctified them,
   And rose up early in the morning,
   And offered burnt offerings,
   According to the number of them all;
   For Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned,
   And cursed God in their hearts; thus did Job do continually.
6  Now there was a day when the children of God came,
   To present themselves before the LORD,
   And Satan came also among them.
7  The LORD said unto Satan,
   Whence comest thou?
   Satan answered the LORD,
   From going to and fro in the earth,
   From walking it, up and down.
8  The LORD said unto Satan,
   Hast thou considered my servant Job,
   That there is none like him in the whole earth,
   A perfect upright man that feareth God and escheweth evil?
9  Then Satan answered the LORD, and said,
   Doth Job fear God for naught?
 

  
5.  Job offered sacrifices to sanctify his children, to free them of possible sin. Job offered the sacrifices for them as a priest or mediator would do, to cleanse them from sin before God. He did it on a regular basis, as we partake of the sacrament weekly. (cf. 41:25b--"By reason of their breakings [of bread] they purify themselves.")
6. The children of God, including Satan, assembled in heaven where Jesus was chosen to be the great sacrifice for the sins of mankind. This assembly happens at an earlier time, but is connected to the story because of the relationship between Jesus and the enemy, Satan.
7. Satan seems to be separate from the others, even as an outcast from heaven.
8.
Satan surely had considered Job because he accuses God of helping him too much all along, but God emphasizes Job's purity again by declaring it himself. This constitutes the main theme for the Book of Job. Is Jesus good enough to remain pure, and thereby defeat Satan?
9. The cynical adversary, Satan, challenged God on the basis that Jesus couldn't succeed unless God helped him. He meant that with that much help from God, any man could succeed. No doubt he was trying to justify his own earlier failure.
 

10 Hast not thou made an hedge about him,
   About his house, and about all that he hath?
   On every side thou hast blessed the work of his hands,
   And all his substance thou hast greatly increased in the land.
11 But put forth thine hand now and touch all that he hath,
   And he will surely curse thee to thy face.
12 And the LORD said to Satan,
   Behold, all that he hath is in thy power,
   Only upon himself, put not forth thine hand.
   So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.
13 And there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating,
   And drinking wine, in their eldest brother's house.
14 And there came a messenger unto Job, and said,
   The oxen were plowing,
   And the asses feeding beside them,
15 When the Sabeans fell upon them and took them away.
   Yea, and they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword,
   And I only am escaped alone to tell thee.
16 And while he was yet speaking,
   Another came also, and said,
   The fire of God is fallen from heaven,
   A
nd hath burned up the sheep, and the servants,
   And consumed them, and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.
17 And while he was yet speaking there came also another, and said,
   The Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and carried them away.
   Yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword,
   And I only am escaped alone to tell thee.
 
10. Satan is suggesting that Jesus has been helped too much by God to claim innocence.
11. Test him by taking away his earthly things and he will fail.
12. Satan is given permission to bring down all that Jesus has, short of taking his life. He accepts the challenge, confident that he can prove "no one is perfect" (an attempt to justify his own failures)
13-18. Then in a single day Jesus lost everything, wealth, family and friends, which represents his followers and position of esteem. His wealth also seems to include his position with God, as we shall see more clearly as we proceed. Jesus was left alone by God and his friends to face the trials and the crucifixion.
 
18 While he was yet speaking,
   There came also another, and said,
   All thy sons and thy daughters were eating,
   And drinking wine in thy eldest brother's house,
19 And behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness,
   And smote the four corners of the house.
   It fell upon the young men,
   And they are dead,
   And I only am escaped to tell thee.
20 Job arose, rent his mantle, and shaved his head,
   And fell down upon the ground and worshiped, and said,
21 Naked came I out of my mother's womb and naked shall I return thither;
   The LORD gave and the LORD hath taken away, blessed be the name of the LORD.
22 In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly.
 
20-21. Symbolically, lying in the dust of humility, he said prophetically, 'I was born into this world in the most humble of circumstances, and I will leave it no differently.' This statement reflects his humble birth in the stable, as well as the humble ending on the cross. In both cases he was naked, both literally and figuratively, as we shall see.
22. Jesus has passed the first part of the trial.

CHAPTER 2
 
1  Again a day came when the children of God presented themselves before the LORD;
   And Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD.
2  And the LORD said unto Satan, From whence comest thou?
   And Satan answered the LORD, and said,
   From going to and fro in the earth,
   From walking up and down in it.
3  The LORD said unto Satan,
   Hast thou considered my servant Job?
   That there is none like him in all the earth,
   A perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God and escheweth evil?
   And still he holdeth fast his integrity,
   Although thou movedst me against him,
   To destroy him without cause?
4  And Satan answered the LORD, and said,
   Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath, will he give for his life,
5  But put forth thine hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh,
   And he shall curse thee to thy face.
6  And the LORD said unto Satan,
   Behold, he is in thine hands, but save his life.
7  So went Satan forth away from the presence of the LORD,
   And smote Job with sore boils, from his sole of his foot unto his crown.
8  And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he sat down among the ashes.
 
3. Notice that the LORD takes responsibility for all that he has given Satan permission to do, which so far has been to take away his children (the disciples) and his wealth (friends and position).
4-5. In effect the adversary said, 'So far you have only scratched his skin; dig deeper into his flesh and he will fail. You haven't really tried him.'
6. God again grants Satan permission to place Job in peril, but this time to attack his person, to search out any possible rebellion--still within bounds. The loss of Job's health, the second phase of his troubles, equates to Jesus' crucifixion and the physical pain associated with it.
8. Jesus was crucified outside the city gate at Golgotha among the ashes of the city dump.
 

9  Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine integrity? Curse God, and die.
10 But he said unto her, Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh.
   What? shall we receive good at the hand of God,
   And shall we not receive evil?
   In all this did not Job sin with his lips.
11 Now when Job's three friends heard of all this evil,
   That was come upon him, they came every one from his place,
   Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite;
   For they had made an appointment together, to come to mourn with him and to comfort him.
12 But when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and they knew him not,
   They lifted up their voices, and they wept;
   And they rent every one his mantle,
   And sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven.
13 So they sat down with him upon the ground seven days and seven nights,
   And none spake a word unto him, for they saw that his grief was very great.
 
9. At first it is difficult to understand how Peter, if he represents Jesus' wife, could say such words; but are they not in effect a denial of Jesus" efforts, which is what Peter did when he denied Jesus?
12b. No one would "know" Jesus, not after he was arrested, and they stood far off. Cf. Psa. 38:11--"My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore; and my kinsmen stand afar off."
13. Jesus suffered for seven hours during the trial, and another seven hours on the cross. Seven hours is also the traditional Jewish mourning period. Sitting on the ground in silence is a sign of mourning. Orthodox Jews still observe the "shivah," which means "seven" (cf. Gen. 50:10; 1Sam 31:13; and Lam 2:10).

 

CHAPTER 3
 
Now, on the cross, Jesus expresses his extreme discomfort by regretting his life--his conception, birth, childhood, and even adulthood. He does this by wishing his past had not happened, or that just the opposite had happened (Notice that they are events in Jesus life.). Why? It is not what we would expect; that is, the pain and suffering we know he had to endure, but rather that his way is hid, meaning that there are aspects of his end that he hadn't foreseen--although verse 25 tells us that what he greatly feared has finally come, which is most significant to Jesus and not Job. God's withdrawal (concluded from Jesus' last words, My God, My God, Why hast thou forsaken me?) is most likely what he is referring to when he says his way is hid, which causes him to believe he has failed in his mission to be the Savior (more about this later). Such deep despair could only come from a belief that he has failed and therefore been rejected by God, and explains his deep remorse for having been born at all, although some might explain it as only hyperbole.
 
1  After this opened Job his mouth, and cursed his day of birth.
2  And Job spake, and said, let the day perish wherein I was born,
   And the night in which it was said, there is a man-child conceived.
4  Let that day be darkness; let not God regard it from above,
   Neither let the light shine down upon it.
5  Let darkness and the shadow of death stain it;
   Let a cloud dwell upon it; let the blackness of the day terrify it.
6  And as for that night, let the darkness seize upon it;
   Let it not be joined unto the other days of the year;
   Let it not come into the number of the months.
 
1. All translations agree the subject is his birthday, which is clear from v-3.
2. This tells us of the events that happened the night of his birth by wishing they had not happened, that he had never been born or conceived(cf.Jer.20:14-18).
3. His birth is the subject of these verses, not his conception, and the above line is how the Hebrew bible reads (Cp. v10). His birth was not only announced by angels to shepherds watching their flocks at night, but was also announced by a new star in the east. Luke 2:9-14 reports what the angels said: "For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord."
4. The opposite happened, this day brought forth more "light" than any other.
6. Again just the opposite happened. Jesus' birthday is the most well-known--everywhere.
7  Lo, let that night be solitary;
   Let no joyful voice come therein.
8  Let them curse it that curse the day,
   Who are ready to raise up their leviathan.
9  Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark;
   Let it look for light, but have none,
   Neither let it see the dawning of the day;
10 Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb, 
   Nor hid this sorrow from mine eyes.
11 Why died I not from the womb? 
   Why did I not give up the ghost when I came out of the belly?
12 Why did the knees receive me? or why the breasts that I should suck?
13 For now should I have lain still and been quiet; I should have slept;
   Then had I been at rest, with kings and counselors of the earth,
   Which built desolate places for themselves;
 

7. Solitary? With a host of angels (joyful voices) singing good tidings of great joy? Luke 2:13-14 reads, "And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying, glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace goodwill toward men."
8a. Jastrow explains (pg. 207): "An obscure stanza. Instead of "cursers of the day," I read with Gunkel (Schopfung und Chaos,p. 95) followed by Ehrlich (Randglossen 6, p. 190) by a slight correction, . . . the reference being to diviners who invoke the spirits of the deep)."
8b. Jastrow explains that the text says, "Leviathan." And then explains: --"the term for dragon as the personification of the deep, so frequently referred to in the Old Testament, e.g., Isaiah 27:1; Psa. 74:14; 104:26 etc." The HB, K&D and MJJ all read "leviathan." The Book of Revelation makes it most clear: "And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years" (Rev.12:9). The verse means that he wishes for the demons of Satan to curse "his day," which cursing is consistent with the rest of his wishes. But the opposite would be angels that blessed that day, saying, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, good will toward men." See the comment on 7:12 for an explanation of leviathan. Also cp. Job 26:13; Psa. 89:9-10.
9. MJJ, K & D. and the HB all report this line to mean, literally, "The eyelids of the dawn." "Stars" should be singular to agree with "it" of the next line.
12. HB pg. 264 & MJJ pg. 208. This verse refers to the custom of a father legitimizing his newborn child by receiving it on his knees (MJJ pg. 208).
14. Ruins-K.D. pg.81. Jesus would rather be with kings in the grave, in heaven where gold and silver (spiritual riches) are found, or where innocent children go (back to their Father) anywhere, except suffering on the cross, and forsaken by his Father indicating his failure.

15 Or with princes that had gold, who filled their houses with silver;
16 Or as a hidden untimely birth I had not been, as infants which never saw light.
17 There the wicked cease from their troubling, and there the weary shall be at rest.
18 There the prisoners rest together, and hear not the voice of the oppressor.
19 The small and great are there, and the servant is free of his master.
20 Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery,
   And life unto the bitter in soul?
21 Which long for death, but it cometh not;
   And dig for it more than for hid treasures;
22 Which rejoice exceedingly and are glad,
   When they can find the grave.
23 Why is light given,
   To a man whose way is hid,
   And whom God hath hedged about?
24 For my sighing cometh before my meat,
   And my roarings are poured out like the waters.
25 For the thing which I greatly feared is come upon me,
   And that which I was afraid of is come unto me.
26 I was not in safety, neither had I rest,
   Neither was I quiet; yet trouble came.

MJJ: Literally "princes of gold," meaning the spiritually rich, candidates for the celestial kingdom.
16-19.
His desire is to have died as a child, innocent--therefore worthy of v-15.
20-21. He goes on to question Satan's claim that he has been hedged about (protected), when things are going so wrong. In other words, How could God have helped Jesus so much if he has failed and God did not let Jesus foresee these terrible times? Some scholars think this hedging in, or hedging about, is one of restriction rather than protection, but that wouldn't be consistent with the prologue, which asks: "Hast thou not made a hedge about him?" (1:10). "How is light given....." instead of "why" makes sense
24. HB & RSV. Others translate this line, "before I eat," or "instead of my food." While either of those might mean the same, "meat" or in other words "bread" works best. "Bread and water," are frequently used to represent truth and knowledge. So here, his suffering comes before, or without, the knowledge of why it's happening.
25. He had no time to rest following his terrible suffering in Gethsemane, where he lost blood from every pore. From there, he went straight to the scourgings and crucifixion. He must have been afraid that he might fail. Jesus knew and said often when and how he would die (See John 2:18-22; Luke 9:21-22; Mark 9:30-32, 10:32-34).
26. K&D.(pg.83), "that without any real cessation, his suffering rages afresh."

CHAPTER 4
 
Eliphaz begins by reminding Jesus of the strength that he has given others, and so he must also continue, even with weak hands and feeble knees. Then he points out that his fear or respect of God is his confidence, and in a synonymous parallelism he repeats the same idea; that his perfection, which grows out of his "fear" of God, is his hope. This trouble has come upon him because of his uprightness. Eliphaz tells us of an awful possibility that could happen, and it comes to him like a revelation. It's frightful and hair-raising, suggesting that Jesus might challenge God's judgment or charge Him with an injustice. Satan wants Jesus to conclude that he, Jesus, is so marvelous that he can see fault with God's judgment, Satan attempts to support this idea with a truth from premortality (which is a sore spot of his): that God charged some of His angels with sin in the premortal world, and cast them out (including himself), never to be blessed with bodies or have any further development.

1  Then Eliphaz the Temanite answered, and said,
2  If we assay to commune with thee, wilt thou be grieved?
   But who can withhold himself from speaking?
3  Behold, thou hast instructed many,
   And thou hast strengthened the weak hands.
4  Thy words have upholden him that was falling,
   And thou hast strengthened their feeble knees.
5  But now it is come upon thee, and thou faintest;
   It toucheth thee, and thou art troubled.
6  Is not this thy fear, thy confidence,
   Thy hope, and the uprightness of thy ways?
7  Remember, I pray thee, who ever perished being innocent? 
   Or when were the righteous ever cut off?
8  Even as I have seen, 
   They that plow iniquity and sow wickedness reap the same.
9  By a blast of God they perish, by a breath of his nostrils are they consumed.

3-4. Jesus has helped the lame, the blind, even the dead.
5. Now feeble knees have come to Jesus (cf. Psa. 109:24).
6. NIV, RSV. His fear (respect) of God is confidence. His hope spurs on his uprightness. These questions could only be asked of Jesus in such a time of trouble, but they reassure in that no matter how dark things are, complete trust in God will carry him through.
7. If he is right (v6), he has no need to fear. Then why is he suffering?
8-9. Only the wicked are destroyed by God. If v-6 is true, what is the reason?
 

10 The roaring of the lion, and the voice of the fierce lion,
   And the teeth of the young lions, are broken.
11 The old lion perisheth for lack of prey,
   And the stout lion's whelps are scattered abroad.
12 Now a thing was secretly brought to me, and mine ear received a little thereof,
13 In thoughts from the visions of the night when deep sleep falleth upon men.
14 Fear came upon me, and also trembling, which made all my bones to shake.
15 Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up.
16 It stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof.
   An image was before mine eyes.
   There was silence,
   And I heard a voice saying,
17 Shall mortal man be more just than God?
   Shall a mortal man be more pure than his Maker?
18 Behold, he put no trust in his servants, and his angels he charged with folly;
19 Then how much less in them that dwell in houses of clay,
   Whose foundation is in the dust,
   Which are crushed before the moth?
20 They are destroyed from morning to evening;
   They perish forever without anyone regarding it.
21 Doth not their excellency which is in them go away?
   And they die, even without wisdom.
 
10-11. The other reason (suggested in v7) is that the lion (Satan) and his whelps (the wicked) are being defeated. Note that the symbol of the lion is so appropriate as the lion is known as the king of jungle or the king of wild beasts. (cf. 5:22-23; 18:3; Psa. 49:20--Man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is like the beasts that perish.; Eccl. 3:18 "that they might see that they themselves are beasts.")
12-16. But wait; a question is in the air, coming like a revelation as it did to Abraham in Gen. 15:12, Jacob in Gen. 28:11, or Elijah in 1 Kings 19:12. In the silence, it is a still, small voice, even a suggestion from Satan. It is asked because Jesus has requested a judgment from God.
17. To ask for a judgment from God questions: Are you more righteous than God? The suggestion seems innocent enough at first, but means God must have made a mistake or is not in full control.
18. Then, as usual, Satan supports his evil suggestion with a bit of truth: If God is love and completely righteous, how could He cast out of heaven in the "first estate," Lucifer, and along with him, one-third of God's other children, who were also rebellious. (See Rev. 12:2-9.)
19. If God did that to his own children, what chance does a mortal, a piece of clay, have, that is as fragile as a moth? (cf. Psa. 39:11).
20. Many die every day, and are hardly noticed.
21. They die being ignorant of their God.

CHAPTER 5
 
Eliphaz continues, 'Don't become angry or envious over this. Trust in God who does many marvelous things. Accept what God does in happiness, and know that great blessings, even success, will attend thee in the end.'
 
1  Call now, if there be any that will answer thee;
   And to which of the Holy Ones wilt thou turn?
2  For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth the silly one.
3  I have seen the foolish taking root, but suddenly I cursed his habitation.
4  His children are far from safety, and they are crushed in the gate,
   Neither is there any to deliver them:
5  Whose harvest the hungry eateth up,
   And taketh it even out of the thorns.
   And the robber swalloweth up their substance.
6  Although affliction cometh not forth of the dust,
   Neither doth trouble spring forth out of the ground,
7  Yet man is born unto trouble, as surely as sparks fly upward.
8  I would seek unto God, unto God would I commit my cause,
9  Which doeth great things, and unsearchable things,
   And Marvelous things without number.
10 Who giveth rain upon the earth, and sendeth waters upon the fields;
11 To set up on high all those that be low, that those which mourn may be exalted to safety.
 
1.
"Saints" means "Holy Ones," which is literally how the Hebrew reads (MJJ pg 213).
2. HB, RSV. .i.e., Don't be impatient. Wait upon the Lord (cf. Psa. 37:1-7&34; and 27:14--Wait on the LORD: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the LORD.").
3. Such a "foolish" one, with the possibility of taking root, is Jesus (cf. Prov. 19:3).
4. "His children" are all mankind. They are not yet saved, not until they have a "deliverer."
5. HB, RSV. His harvest is not for himself. All that he does is for the spiritually hungry. They will consume his "produce," even when it was so difficult for him to "glean" from the thorns; and the robber, Satan, will consume their substance (their eternal lives), if he doesn't.
7. NIV, K&D. The children of God are born unto trials, just as surely as sparks (the children of the flame) fly upward.
10. Water and rain symbolize truth and knowledge, which is for the people of the fields (cf. Psa. 63:1; 65:9-13; 72:6).
 

12 He disappointeth the devices of the crafty,
   So that their hands cannot perform their enterprise.
13 He taketh down the wise in their own craftiness,
   And the council of the froward is carried headlong.
14 They meet with darkness in the midst of daytime,
   And grope in the noonday as in the night.
15 But he saveth the poor from the sword,
   From their mouth, and from the hand of the mighty.
16 So the poor hath hope; and iniquity stoppeth her mouth.
17 Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth;
   Therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty.
18 For he maketh sore, and bindeth up; he woundeth, and his hands make whole.
19 He shall deliver thee in six troubles, yea, in seven there shall no evil touch thee.
20 In famine he shall redeem thee from death, and in war from the power of the sword.
21 Thou shalt be hid when the tongue scourgeth,
   Neither shalt thou be afraid of destruction when it cometh.
 
12-13. The plans of the crafty (including Satan's) are being swept away. Satan's efforts to destroy mankind are turned back, and his own craftiness is used against him.
14. There is darkness for three hours, beginning at high noon. Matt. 27:45, "Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour." Cp. Amos 8:9-10, Zeph. 1:15; Joel 2:2.
15-16. Because of Jesus' words to the Romans, the disciples will escape arrest (the "poor" hath hope). John 18:8-9 tells us, "Jesus answered; I have told you that I am He: ...Let these go their way; that ... them which thou gavest me I have lost none." In a broader sense, Christ's Atonement will save the "poor," which means the humble, those who repent and are obedient to the commandments. Then, (line 16) "iniquity" or justice, will have no claim on them.
17. This is directed toward Simon Peter who has just cut off the officers ear and is chastised by Jesus. Cf. Prov. 3:11-12--My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD; neither be weary of his correction:".
18. John 18:10 and Luke 22:51 reveals the story alluded to here: "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far, and He touched his ear, and healed him."
19. The crucifixion will last for six hours, according to this; in the seventh hour (or about 3:30 PM), he will die, and it will all be over.
20-21. All your troubles will pass and without any failure on your part. You will be at peace then.

22 At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh,
   Neither shalt thou fear the beasts of the earth.
23 Thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field,
   And the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee.
24 And thou shalt knowest that thy tabernacle shall be in peace;
   And thou shalt visit thy habitation, and shalt not sin.
25 Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great,
   And thine offspring as the grass of the earth.
26 Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full age,
   Like a shock of corn cometh in in season.
27 Lo this, we have searched it, and so it is;
   Hear it, and know thou it for thy good.
 
22-25. Verse 23a is missing in the LXX. The NIV uses "make a covenant" instead of "be in league." When this is over all will be well for you, forever. "Beasts of the field," or, "of the world," are the enemies of God (cf. 4:10; Psa. 73:22; Psa. 49:20--Nevertheless man that is in honor, and understandeth not: is like the beasts that perish."
23. "Stones of the field" means the same as "Rocks," which refers to the faithful people.
24. His house (or earthly body) will be lived in on this earth without sin. He will be found to be perfect, spiritually lacking nothing.
25. All of the righteous of the earth are given to him by the Father. They become his sons and daughters through the Atonement, having received eternal life through him.
26. All that must be accomplished, will be, before his death.

CHAPTER 6
 
Jesus says, 'My grief is great because it seems as though God has become my enemy and does not hear my words. Because I am sure of my innocence, this seems unjust to me. Why doesn't he allow me to just die? My brethren have left me. They are ashamed, for now I am as nothing. Only hours ago they swore loyalty to me, even unto death. I am innocent, and I know God will see that if he will just consider my case. Wouldn't I know if I had sinned?'
 
1  But Job answered, and said,
2  Oh that my grief were thoroughly weighed,
   And my calamities were lifted up in the balances together!
3  For now it would be heavier than the sand of the sea,
   Therefore my words are swallowed up in the wind.
4  For the arrows of the Almighty are in me,
   And the poison thereof drinketh up my spirit;
   The terrors of God do set themselves in array against me.
5  Doth the wild ass bray when he hath grass?
   Or loweth the ox over his fodder?
6  Can the unsavory be eaten without salt?
   Or is there any taste in the white of an egg?
7  The things my soul refused to touch are as my sorrowful meat.
 
3.
"Swallow" in this sense means to have his words consumed or overwhelmed, as in "My words were swallowed up by his verbosity," or, in this case: "carried away by the wind" (V 26), or not heard. So here he expresses the idea that his words are not heard by God, causing his heavy grief. The Hebrew Bible reports that this can't be translated with certainty. The above translation is consistent, that he is not heard by God: see Job 13:24; 19:7,8; 30:20; 31:35.
4. Jesus equates the nails in his hands and feet to arrows. Crucifixion by the Romans required the hands and feet be nailed through to the cross (cf. Psa. 38:2--"For thine arrows stick fast in me, and thy hand presseth me sore." Also see Psa. 22:16: 57:4; 64:4; especially Lam.3:12,13). This analogy will be used several times. Isn't it descriptive? to consider the nails to be in "an array"? Cp. Job 19:20; 33:21.
5. An ass brays when he needs food. Food represents knowledge or truth which he lacks; so he is saying, "I question this because I continue in pain with explanation. This thing appears to be wrong or I would not question it."
6. Jesus is suggesting that what is happening (being forsaken), is not palatable.
7. Instead of food, Jesus was offered drugs; it was the custom to relieve the pain. He refused them, as they were like loathsome medicine. Matt. 27:34 informs us, "They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall; and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink." See also Mark 15:23 and Psa. 69:21--"They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink."
 

8  Oh, that I might have my request, that God would grant me that which I long for!
9  Even that it would please God to destroy me,
   That he would let loose his hand,
   And cut me off!
10 Then should I yet have my comfort,
   Yea, I would harden myself in sorrow; let him not spare;
   For I have not concealed the words of the Holy One.
11 What is my strength that I should continue to hope?
   What is mine end that I should prolong my life?
12 Is my strength the strength of stone, or is my flesh of brass?
13 Is not mine help within me? And is wisdom driven quite away from me?
14 To him that is afflicted pity should be shown from his friend;
   But he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty.
15 My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a brook,
   And as the streams of wadis they pass away.
16 Which are blackish by reason of the ice,
   And wherein the snow is hid.
17 What time they wax warm, they vanish;
   When it is hot, they are consumed out of their place.
18 Their paths of their way are turned aside, and they go to nothing and perish.
 
8.
Jesus wishes again that it might end, and desires that God end it.
10.
If God were to let his life end now, Jesus would be consoled by the fact that he spoke his true feelings, thereby not committing a sin.
12. 'My flesh is not marble or bronze, like a statue or crucifix (so common in the world today), that I can endure this.'
13.
K&D. 'I am utterly helpless and without knowledge of why this must continue.'
14-18. HB. Instead of receiving pity or comfort from the disciples, they fled when the going got tough. They faded away like a stream in the desert, lost in the sand. A "wadi," in the Middle-East, is a dry-gulch. The snow waters represent the clear, good water, which is hidden in the disciples--for the time being. Matt. 26:56 reported it: Then all the disciples forsook him and fled. In Mark 14:27 Jesus forecast it earlier, "And Jesus saith unto them, All you shall be offended because of me this night; for it is written [Zech 13:7], I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered." "Which," in verse sixteen refers back to "my brethren" (cf. Psa. 88:8; 38:11--"My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore; and my kinsmen stand afar off."). Also see Job 2:12; 9:14; 16:20; 19:13.
 

19 The troops of Tema looked; the companies of Sheba waited for them.
20 They were confounded because they had hoped; they came thither and were ashamed. 
21 For now ye are as nothing; ye see my casting down, and are afraid.
22 Did I say, Bring unto me? or, Give a reward for me?
23 Or, Deliver me from the enemy's hand?
   Or, Redeem me from the mighty?
24 Teach me, and I will hold my tongue;
   And cause me to understand wherein I have erred.
25 How forcible are right words, but what doth your arguing reprove?
26 Do ye imagine to reprove words and speeches of one who is desperate, which are as wind?
27 Yea, ye would even cast lots over the fatherless, or barter away your friend.
28 Now, therefore, be so kind as to look upon me;
   For it is evident unto you if I lie?
29 Return, I pray you, let it not be iniquity;
   Yea, return and look again upon me, my righteousness is in it.
30 Is there iniquity in my tongue? cannot my taste discern perverse things?
 
19. Many have looked for the Messiah and freedom from the Romans, but they fail to find their expectations.
20-21. K&D, MJJ. The disciples and the public came only to be disappointed. They are aghast that the one they had hoped to be their Messiah should now be as nothing. Cf . Psa. 22:6-7, considered as nothing, laughed to scorn, and despised by the people. Also see Mark 15:29, 32b: Luke 23:11 and Matt 27:39,44.
22-23. I didn't ask them to defend me; but their comfort and support would have been welcomed.
25. "Right" means honest or sincere. How quickly the disciples forgot their promises to Jesus, "even unto death," made to him before trouble came. This is Matt. 26:35, "Peter said unto him, Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise also said all the disciples."
27. HB, RSV. The guards cast lots for his clothes, as told in Mark 15:24, "And when they had crucified Him, they parted His garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take." See also Matt. 27:35; Luke 23:34; John 19:24; Psa. 22:18--"They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture." Judas betrayed him for thirty pieces of silver (cf. Psa. 41:9--"Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me."; Psa. 55:12-14--"For it was not an enemy that reproached me: . . . But it was thou, a man mine equal, and walked unto the house of God in company."). Also cp. Job 17:15.
28-30. He pleads to be reexamined for iniquity. Yea, return, or come back, do not forsake me. Reconsider my case, for wouldn't I know if I were not righteous. In other words, You have made a mistake. "Righteousness is in it" means that his righteousness still stands.

CHAPTER 7
 
Jesus wants to know why this goes on. He is anxious for the resurrection and, therefore, the end of his trials. 'What have I done? Who am I? one of Satan's monsters of the deep? How long will you try a man? If I have sinned, let me die and be gone.'
 
1  Is there not an appointed time for man upon the earth?
   Are not his days also like the days of a hireling?
2  As a servant desireth the evening shadows,
   And as an hireling looketh for the reward of his work,
3  So am I made to possess months of vanity, and wearisome nights are appointed to me.
4  When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise, and the night be gone?
   I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.
5  My flesh is clothed with worms and clods of dust;
   My skin is broken, and is become loathsome.
6  My days pass, swifter than a shuttle,
   And are spent without hope.
7  O remember that my life is wind,
   And that mine eye is no more to see good.
8  The eyes of him that hath seen me shall see me no more,
   Thine eyes are upon me, and I am not.
9  As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away,
   So he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more.
10 He shall not return to his house, neither shall his place know him any more.
 
1-3. He is impatient for the end to come, and consequently his reward (like any laborer).
4. Jesus looks forward to his resurrection. His suffering drags on through the "night," which means through a time when he is in "darkness," literally and figuratively, as it actually turned dark during the crucifixion.
5. Jesus is covered with blood clots and infections, which were caused by the scourgings and nails. Other Jewish exegetes, such as Ibn Ezra, use "suppurates" instead of "loathsome." It is interesting that Jesus would refer to blood clots as "clods of dust" when man is said to be made from the dust of the earth.
6-7. Jesus had such a short ministry to have it come to an end without hope, in such despair. The "night" drags on in terms of suffering; but overall, his life went by as fast as a weaver's shuttle. He means he will not see God or happiness again, as "God is good" (cf. Matt. 19:17).
8-10. "Him" means God, from 7:7. All men live only once. Soon he will die and be gone, never to experience the same again. 
 

11 Therefore I will not refrain my mouth;
   I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; 
   I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.
12 Am I of the sea, a monster that thou settest a watch over me?
13 When I say, My bed shall comfort me, and my couch shall ease my complaint,
14 Then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me through visions,
15 So that my soul chooseth strangling and death, rather than life.
16 I loathe it; I would not live always.
   Then let me alone, for my days are vanity.
17 What is man, that thou shouldest magnify him?
   And that thou shouldest set thine heart upon him?
18 And that thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every moment?
 
11b
. It is missing in the LXX.
12. NIV. The sea, or the deep, represents the world, which is the realm of Satan (cf. Psa.74:13-14; 89:9-10; 104:25-26; Isa. 51:9-10). Satan is the leviathan, the monster of the deep, the serpent, or dragon (cf. Rev. 12:9, 20:2, Gen. 3:1-4,14,15; Isa. 27:1--"In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea." ). These symbols probably are the origin of the myth about a monster or dragon that could devour or eclipse the sun. Satan can surely take away the "light" from men, if they let him. Jesus asks, "Am I like that monster, Satan, that you need to guard me?" The same Roman guards that cast lots for his clothes were posted at his cross to prevent anyone from taking him down before his death.
13-15. While death (his bed in the ground) would end his suffering, he is frightened by the thought that he has failed in his mission, and if so, his very soul would choose a spiritual death; but it goes on and on.
16. Now he prefers death, concluding that his mission is a waste (vanity). "I would" means "I desire," and "live alway" is in the sense of living on.
17-18. He is asking if any man is really capable of doing what God expects of him, being a mere mortal. This indirectly reflects his feelings about the greatness of God and the nothingness of man.  "What is man, that you are mindful of him?" (Psa. 8:4). 
 

19 How long wilt thou not depart from me,
   Nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle?
20 If I have sinned, what shall I do unto thee, O thou preserver of men?
   Why hast thou set me up as a mark against thee,
   So that I am a burden to myself?
21 And why dost thou not pardon my transgression,
   And take away mine iniquity? for now, I shall sleep in the dust.
   And thou shalt seek me in the morning,
   But I shall not be.
 
 
19. i.e., 'Let me rest long enough to swallow my spittle.' Because of a dry throat he cannot swallow (cf. Psa. 69:3 "I am weary of my crying: my throat is dried: mine eyes fail while I wait for my God."). "My eyes fail," has a double meaning. First, it means that he can not see because of the tears, and second, it means that he fails to see, or fails to understand and only God has the answer.
20.. All the translations except the KJV prefix this verse with "If", making it an hypothetical question, which makes sense.(cf. 9:29 and 19:4). Being set up "like a mark" means "like a target." He is pinned up upon a frame like a target..
21. If he has sinned, from verse 20, he asks for forgiveness. He suspects that he is a dead man.

CHAPTER 8
 

Bildad says, 'God knows what He is doing. Have faith that He cannot pervert justice. There has to be righteousness in what He is doing. Now seek unto God for the answer and all will end well for you. Ask your fathers, and their fathers. Any efforts without God's sanction will come to naught. Believe that God will not cast out or punish a perfect man; neither will He help your enemies.'
 
1  Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,
2  How long wilt thou speak these things,
   And how long shall thy words be as strong wind?
3  Doth God pervert judgment?
   Or doth the Almighty pervert justice?
4  If thy children have sinned against him,
   He have cast them away for their transgression.
5  If thou wouldest seek unto thy God betimes,
   And make supplication to the Almighty,
6  If thou wert pure and upright,
   Surely now he would awake for thee,
   And make thy righteousness prosperous.
7  And though thy beginning was very small,
   Yet thy latter end shall greatly increase;
8  For inquire, I pray thee, of the former ages,
   And prepare thyself to the search of their fathers;
9  (For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing,
   Because our days on earth are but a shadow.)
10 Shall not they teach thee, and tell thee,
   And utter words out of their heart? 
 
2-3.
No! God cannot be unjust.
4. This would be a most terrible way to console a father, if it referred to Job's children. If it did, Bildad would certainly be no friend. It means God's children, and more specifically, Jesus' children, which means all mankind, which he spiritually gave new life to through the atonement. Anyone that commits a sin is cast out of God's presence.
7. Jesus had the most humble beginning, i.e., born in a manger. We read in Luke 2:7, "And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger."
8-10.
Study what those that have gone before have said, even back to the beginning when Adam walked alone. They will tell us from their heart what we haven't the time to learn in our short life time.

11 Can the rush grow up without mire, or the flag grow without water?
12 Whilst it is yet in its greenness, and not cut down, it withereth before any other herb.
13 So are the paths of all that forget God, and the hypocrite's hope shall perish;
14 Whose hope shall be cut off, whose trust shall be a spider's web.
15 He shall lean upon his house, but it shall not stand.
   He shall hold it fast, but it shall not endure.
16 He is green before the sun;
   And his branch shooteth forth in his garden.
17 His roots are wrapped about the heap, and seeth a place of stones.
18 If he destroy him from his place, then it shall deny him saying, I have not seen thee.
19 Behold, this is the joy of his way; and out of the earth shall others grow.
20 Behold, God will not cast away a perfect man, or help evil doers.
21 He will yet fill thy mouth with laughter,
   And thy lips with rejoicing.
22 They that hate thee shall be clothed with shame;
   And the dwelling place of the wicked shall come to naught.

 
11. Those without enough spiritual growth will fail when the storms come, as Peter will do.
15. To lean upon his house refers to the house of the godless, which is like the spider's house. Any that forget God can expect their house to perish.
16. Peter, nurtured in a sunshine-filled, well-watered garden, and not yet mature, will deny Jesus.
17-18. His roots go down and seeth an heap of stones. Peter, who has been rooted to the greatest of stones, Jesus, will still be uprooted and say, "I have not seen thee." Matt. 26:75 recalls it: "And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, . . . before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice."
19. The message, since verse 11, has been, that some grow too fast without a strong spiritual foundation. Then again, like quick sprouting reeds, they fail early at the first trial. It will happen to others.
22. Satan and "his" will fail, and be cast out. They will have no "covering," neither flesh, nor the "covering of the Lord," that will cover our sins if we repent. They will have only their shame (cf. 10:11); Psa. 109:29--"Let mine adversaries be clothed with shame, and let them cover themselves with their own confusion." 

 
CHAPTER 9
 
Jesus answers, 'Of course you are right. How could any man contend with God, who does such powerful and miraculous things? Who has the audacity to even question Him? I do not believe He is listening to my pleas for a judgment. I need His judgment, for mine is worth nothing and I would not be guiltless if I acted on it and stopped the crucifixion. If I have erred, why do I go on? If I have erred, all is lost and more efforts on my part are in vain. I know I can go to no one else but God.'
 
1  Then Job answered and said, I know is so of a truth;
   But how could man be just with God?
3  If he will contend with him,
   He can not answer him one in a thousand.
4  He is wise in his heart and mighty in strength.
   Who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered;
5  Which removeth mountains, and they know not, which overturneth them in his anger;
6  Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble;
7  Which commandeth the sun and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars.
8  Which alone spreadeth out the heavens with his hand,
   And treadeth upon the waves of the sea;
9  Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south;
10 Which doeth many great things past finding out, Yea, and wonders without number.
11 Lo, he goeth by me, and I seeth him not; he passeth on also, and I perceiveth him not.
 
2.
This philosophical question; "How could anyone even think of contending with God?" is introducing the same question regarding Herod. Herod certainly couldn't succeed in a suit against Jesus, unless Jesus allowed it.
3. How futile it is for a man to contend with God, when God has done or can do all of the following:
4-7. God is wise and powerful, and no one has prospered that has ever gone against him, as the Pharaoh of Egypt learned. He can move mountains, cause earthquakes, and control the sun and stars.
8. Who calmed the sea and walked upon it. (The sea, or the deep, represents Satan's realm in darkness, and the acts of Jesus calming the sea and even walking upon it has great symbolic significance, showing his complete power over the sea or its serpent,Satan.) ...Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea (Matt. 14:25).
9. Who made the heavens, and performs other miracles beyond our understanding.
11. He does many other things without our knowing.
 

12 Behold, he taketh away, who can hinder him?
   Who will say unto him, What doest thou?
13 If God will not withdraw his anger,
   Helpers of pride stoop under him.
14 How much less shall I answer him,
   And choose out my words to reason with him?
15 Whom, though I were righteous, yet would I not answer him,
   But I would make supplication to my judge.
16 If I had called and he had answered me,
   Yet would I not believe that he had harkened unto my voice;
17 For he breaketh me with a tempest, and multiplieth my wounds without cause.
18 He will not suffer me to take my breath, but filleth me with bitterness.
19 If I speak of strength, lo, he is strong;
   And if of judgment,
   Who shall set me a time to plead?
20 If I justify myself, my own mouth shall condemn me;
   If I should say, I am perfect, it shall also prove me perverse.
 
12.
King Herod will say to the KING, What doest thou?. Who is the "wise man" and who is the king who will say to the King, "What doest thou?" as counseled against in Eccl. 8:1-9?
 13. Instead of pride, others use "Rahab," which comes from a similar sea monster as Leviathan, but also connotes pride or proud one. It means the opposite of the "poor" or humble ones, which are the holy ones. Later it meant the proud of Egypt as it became synonymous with that country because of its pride. It is interesting that this monster or myth, also includes a story of being cast down from the sky, as Satan was.. Here, the helper of God, (i.e. the proud one) is Herod, whose helpers bow to.
14. "Him" refers back to verse 13, and is Herod. It would serve no purpose for Jesus to answer Herod. Cf. Psa. 38:13; 39:2&9.
15ab. Even from a perfect man, Herod is not deserving of an answer.
15c. But to God, his judge, he would plead for mercy.
16. Jesus, at this point, doubts that Herod, who is his judge for the moment, hears him.
17. Herod's scourgings, "multiply" his wounds, because of the many thongs.
19. If I speak of my strength, Herod will show me his, even worse than he already has. If I speak of judgment, Herod will never listen.
20. Earlier expositors recognized that the Hebrew does say, "His mouth," but they thought it referred to God's mouth, and therefore was too objectionable, because God would never twist the verdict; so, they changed it to "my mouth," which would mean Job's mouth. Even the parallel lines support "his mouth." The truth, that I am the Son of God, given to Herod, would surely condemn me. Herod will find me guilty no matter what.
 

21 If I were perfect, yet would I not know my soul; I would despise my life.
22 This is one thing, and so I said it, He destroyeth both the perfect and the wicked.
23 If the scourge slay suddenly, he will laugh at the trial of the innocent.
24 The earth is given into the hand of the wicked;
   He covereth the faces of the judges thereof.
   If not, where, and who is he?
25 Now my days are past,
   Swifter than a runner. they flee away, and see no good.
26 They are passed away as the swift ships, as the eagle that hasteth to its prey.
27 If I say, I will forget my complaint, and leave off my heaviness and comfort myself,
28 I am afraid of all my sorrows, and I know thou wilt not hold me innocent.
29 If I be wicked, why then labor I in vain?
30 If I wash myself in snow water,
   And make mine hands as never before so clean,
31 Yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch, and my own clothes shall abhor me.

 
21. Yes, he is perfect (cf. Psa. 64:4--"That they may shoot in secret at the perfect:", and 69:4C"then I restored that which I took not away [He did no wrong]."). Jastrow explains, this is in the sense of "I set my life as naught."
22. Herod destroys without regard for guilt or innocence. He just laughs when they are innocent.
23. He also laughs when the scourgings bring an early death.
24. Where Herod rules, there is no justice. This chapter is written like a riddle, and so ends like a riddle.
25-27. RSV, NIV, HB, K&D all agree that "runner" is correct. On land, on the sea, and in the air, he describes how swiftly his days have past. Now, in his deep misery, he doesn't even want to be reminded of past pleasures. He knows there is no escape.
28. Here, he again suggests that he might have sinned, to explain his sorrows.
29. If I have sinned, why do I continue to fight? It doesn't matter how innocent he is; he knows God is going to have His way.

32 For he is not a man, as I am, that I should answer him,
   And that we should come together in judgment.
33 Neither is there any daysman betwixt us,
   That might lay his hand upon us both.
34 Let him take his rod away from me;
   And let him not terrify me.
35 Then would I speak,
   And not fear him;
   But it is not so with me.

 
33. "Daysman" means arbiter or mediator. Jesus is our mediator or advocate with the Father; but there is not one for him.
34. "His rod" is speaking of the Father's rod of discipline, which is referred to often in the scriptures: See Prov. 13:24; 22:8; 29:15. Later Jesus will mention the strokes or lashings from it, figuratively of course.

CHAPTER 10
 
Jesus again asks, 'Show me what I've done. You have made and nurtured me, why do you destroy me for nothing? I am full of confusion, and my affliction increases.'
 
1  My soul is weary of my life;
   I will give free rein to my complaint,
   And speak out in the bitterness of my soul.
2  I will say unto God, Do not condemn me;
   Show me wherefore thou contendest with me.
3  Is it good unto thee that thou shouldest oppress,
   That thou shouldest despise the work of thine hands,
   And shine with approval upon the council of the wicked?
4  Hast thou the eyes of flesh? Or seest thou me as man seeth?
5  Are thy days as the days of man, or are thy years as man's days,
6  That thou inquirest after mine iniquity, and thou searchest after my sin?
7  Thou knowest I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand.
8  Thine hands have made me and fashioned me together round about; yet thou dost destroy me.
9  Remember this, I beseech thee, that thou hast made me as the clay;
   And wilt thou bring me into dust again?
10 Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese?
11 Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and fenced me with bones and sinews.
12 Thou hast granted to me life and favor, and thy visitation hath preserved my spirit.
13 And these things hast thou hid in thine heart: I know that this is with thee.
 
2-3. He asks, How did I fail? And why destroy me, the crowning achievement of your hands?
4-7.
i.e., Do you see me only on the outside as men see. I know you are God, and never wrong. Why do you look for sin in me? You know I have no guilt.
8-12.
Jesus claims to be especially created and nurtured by God, even as a potter works in clay, or as a dairy man curdles milk to make cheese; why does He destroy His creation for no apparent reason?
13. His present lack of visitation (from v12) was not shown to him beforehand, but he knows God planned it this way all along, that it has been on his mind.

14 If I sin, then thou markest me,
   And thou wilt not acquit me from mine iniquity.
15 If I be wicked, woe unto me; if I be righteous, yet will I not lift up mine head.
   I am full of confusion; therefore, see thou mine affliction.
16 For it increaseth; thou huntest me as a fierce lion;
   And again thou showest thyself marvelous upon me.
17 Thou renewest thy witnesses against me,
   And increasest thine indignation upon me;
   For I must serve this term and replace myself.
18 Wherefore then hast thou brought me forth out of the womb?
   O that I had given up the ghost, and no eye had seen me!
19 Then I should have been as though I had not ever been,
   I would have been carried from the womb to the grave.
20 Are not my days few? Cease then, and let me alone,
   That I may take comfort a little,
   Before I go whence, and I shall not return,
   Even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death,
22 A land of darkness, as darkness itself;
   And of the shadow of death,
   Without any order,
   And where the light is as darkness.
 
15. He is confused. He is sure of his innocence, but still believes he is being punished for guilt (cf. Psa. 44:15-26), and cannot lift up his head (cf. Job 16:8; Psa. 38:6--"I am troubled; I am bowed down greatly; I go mourning all the day long." Also cp. 40:12; 22:17; 35:14).
16. K&D, Jastrow, NIV and even the Revised KJV agree with the idea that this statement is correct and hypothetical. He likens God to a lion, which would show his marvelous powers in pursuit of him--if he showed any strength like raising his head. This feeling of defeat is consistent with the idea that he has failed in his mission.
17. Why do you let this continue and even become worse? In expressing his feelings of discomfort, even suggesting that death will not free him, that he must suffer through another life, he reveals his belief in his failure.
20-22. 'My days are few, so let me have a moment of rest before I die in failure, never to return from where there is no light, or in other words hell.'

CHAPTER 11
 
'You have said that you are innocent and suffer unjustly, but God can tell you there is another side to this story. Trust completely in God. This trouble will soon be forgotten.'
 
1  Then answered Zophar the Naamathite, and said,
2  Should not the multitude of thy words be answered?
   Should a man full of talk be justified?
3  Should thy vain words make men hold their peace?
   And when thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed?
4  For thou sayest, My doctrine is pure and I am clean in thine eyes.
5  But Oh, that God would speak and open his lips against thee,
6  And that he would show thee the secrets of wisdom,
   That they are double to that which thou seemeth to know.
   Know therefore that God exacteth less of thee than thine iniquity deserveth.
7  Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?
8  It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know?
9  The measure thereof is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea.
10 If he cut off and shut up, or gather together, who can hinder him?
11 For he knoweth vain men, and seeth wickedness also;
   Will he not then consider it?
 
1-2. Changes are from the Hebrew text.
2-6. Your arguments might be just, but you still must go on to gain additional wisdom.
6. They are double to that which appears to be. The secrets of wisdom are twice as complex as they appear now, to you. God exacts less, because God never considers what one does or does not do to be a sin, if one does not know the law, and verse six-b clearly says that this is beyond his wisdom.
7. Can you find out the limits (unto perfection) of God's knowledge?
8. "It" refers back to the limits of God's perfection in verse seven.
9.
The "limits" of God's perfection are beyond measuring. His perfection is without limits.
10. If he cuts off, as he cut off everyone in Noah's time; or he shut up, as he will shut up Satan during the millennium; or he gathers together as he will gather Israel, no one can or will hinder him. Can anyone hope to understand God when He is so great?
 

12 For a vain man can be wise, though man be born like a wild ass's colt.
13 If thou prepare thine heart and stretch out thine hands toward him;
14 If iniquity be in thine hand, put it far away from you,
   And let not wickedness dwell in thy tabernacles;
15 For then shalt thou lift up thy face,
   Without spot.
   Yea, thou shalt be steadfast, and shalt not fear;
16 Because thou shalt forget thy misery, and remember it as waters that pass away.
17 And thy life shall be brighter than noonday; thou shalt shine forth, thou shall be as the morning;
18 And thou shalt be secure because there is hope; Yea, thou shalt dig about thee,
   And thou shalt take thy rest in safety.
19 Also thou shalt lie down,
   And none shall make thee afraid.
   Yea, and many shall pursue their suit with thee.
20 But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall not escape;
   And their hope shall be as the giving up of the ghost.
 
12. K&D, RSV. Even if a man is born in a stable, like an ass's colt (suggesting that all men are born like a wild ass's colt; i.e., without knowledge of God, and without memory of premortality), he can still gain wisdom.
14. A play of words because the nails are in his hands; they are the iniquity. The advice is to forget it and hold no hatred because of it.
15-19. These are the promises that are his if he can only overlook the injustice of the crucifixion (v14).
15. Then he shall be able to lift up his head, which he hasn't been able to do (see 10:15-16, also cf. Psa. 38:6--"I am troubled; I am bowed down greatly; I go mourning all the day long").
16. Does anyone ever remember the waters of a river that have passed by?
17. Then, all will be light, as opposed to the darkness he is now in.
18. This uses the image of an animal circling, digging about to bed down, which is only done when it is safe. This reminds us of the many psalms that speak of safety only being found in the Lord.
19. Ye shall be completely secure, and many shall pursue the same end.
20. But the wicked who loose Christ's cleansing mercy, will not escape punishment.

CHAPTER 12
 
Jesus says, 'Yes, you are wise, but who doesn't know what God has done? I, too, know of His many accomplishments and abilities' (This is really tongue-in-cheek because Jesus was Jehovah before coming to the earth. Verse four indicates that he knows of this premortal role.
 
1  And Job answered and said,
2  No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.
3  But I have understanding as well as you; I am not inferior.
   Yea, and who is he that knoweth not such things as these?
4  I am as one mocked of his neighbor, who calleth upon God,
   And he answereth him, the just upright man is laughed to scorn.
5  He that is ready to slip with his feet is as a lamp that is despised,
   In the thought of him who is at ease; the tabernacles of robbers prosper;
   And they that provoke God are secure, into whose hand God bringeth abundantly.
 
2. It means they are "the" people, the only ones that count that is. When they die, all wisdom will die with them. This sounds as if Job is being sarcastic, which could be considered an appropriate response to accusers that tell him his troubles are the result of his sins when he is sure is innocent. He considers what they have said as mocking him.
4. Not only does his friends mock him, but oOne of the thieves, his neighbor on the crosses, laughed and mocked him. Earlier, he had defended Jesus, and asked to be remembered when Jesus "cometh into his kingdom" (Luke 23:42); but now he joins in with the others. We get the report from Matt. 27:44, "The thieves also, who were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth." Also from Luke 27:39, "If thou be Christ, save thyself and us." See also Luke 23:35-37, and Psa. 42:3--"My tears have been my meat day and night, while they continually say unto me, Where is thy God?").
5. He, who could fail (Jesus), is despised by the Jews, as one despises a bright lamp when trying to sleep.
6. His enemies, those that crucify him, are allowed to have their way by God. They prosper and are confident.
 

7  But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee,
   And the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee;
8  Or speak to the earth and it shall teach thee,
   And even the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee;
9  Who knoweth not in all these that the hand of the LORD hath wrought this?
10 In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind.
11 Doth not the ear try words? and the mouth taste his meat?
12 With the ancient is wisdom, and in length of days, understanding.
13 With him is wisdom and strength, and he hath counsel and understanding.
14 Behold, he breaketh down and it cannot be built up again.
   He shutteth up a man, and there can be no opening.
15 Behold, he withholdeth the waters, and they dry up;
   Also he sendeth them out, and they overturn the earth.
16 With him is strength and wisdom: the deceived and deceiver are his.
17 He leadeth counselors away spoiled, and maketh judges fools.
 
7-10.
Everything in view testifies that God is, and controls all things. All know this is God's doing, as "everything hath been made by the hand of the LORD." (A proverbial expression.) (cf. Isa. 41:20; 66:2).
11. Anyone who hears should recognize these things are true. It is as easy as tasting food to know that God's hand is doing this.
12-15. These are all examples of God's powers, but 14 and 15 is a synonymous parallelism with a double meaning. First he has actually caused droughts and floods, especially for Noah. But metaphorically, he has withheld the "living waters" and in the last days will overturn the earth with a flood of knowledge.
16. Everything and everybody is subservient to God, including the deceived and the deceiver, "which affirms that, in the supremacy of His rule and wisdom of His counsels, God makes evil in every form subservient to His designs" (K&D Pg. 202).
17. The HB reads, "He makes counselors go about naked;" the NIV and the Rev. KJV reads, "He leads counselors away stripped." The way it is above is from K&D, which means the same, and at the same time reflects Jesus' nakedness.

18 He looseth the bond of kings, and girdeth their loins with a girdle.
19 He leadeth princes away spoiled, and overthroweth the mighty.
20 He removeth away the speech of the trusty councilor,
   And taketh away the understanding of the aged.
21 He poureth contempt upon princes,
   And weakeneth the strength of the mighty.
22 He discovereth deep things out of darkness,
   And he bringeth out to light the shadow of death.
23 He increaseth the nations and then destroyeth them;
   He enlargeth the nations and then straiteneth them again.
24 He taketh away the heart of the chief of the people of the earth,
   And causeth them to wander in a wilderness where there is no way to go.
25 They grope in the dark without light, and he maketh them to stagger like a drunken man.
 
18-20.
Although these lines describe what God does to all men in general to bring down their pride, they also apply to Jesus while he is on the cross. Jesus is the counselor, He is the Judge; He is the King; He is the prince; He is the mighty; He is the trusted advisor (which comes from the NIV); He is the aged, being our elder brother.
22. The deep thing that God is looking for is sin in Jesus.
23. God builds us up, and then brings us to trial (into a strait, not straight).
24. God taketh away the heart (breaketh?) of Christ, who, indeed, is the chief of all the earth. "He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not" (John 1:10). "All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made" (John 1:3).
25. Jesus is lost and confused like a drunken man because he doesn't know why he has been forsaken by the Father.

CHAPTER 13
 
Jesus answers them, 'As advocates for God, your words are not acceptable to me. Your arguments appear to me as though you desire to gain favors from God for taking the opposing view. Though He is destroying me, I still trust Him. But, I must voice my opinion or I would be hypocritical. What are my sins? Why do you continue to pursue me, when I am already destroyed?'
 
1  Lo, mine eye hath seen all this, mine ear hath heard and understood it.
2  What ye know, the same do I know also; I am not inferior to you.
3  Surely, I want to speak to the Almighty;
   And I desire to reason with God.
4  But ye are forgers of lies, ye are all physicians of no value.
5  Oh that ye would altogether hold your peace; and it should be your wisdom.
6  But hear now my reasoning, and hearken to the pleadings of my lips.
7  Will you speak wickedly for God? and talk deceitfully for him?
8  Will ye accept his person? will ye contend for God?
9  Would it be good if he searched you out?
   Or as one man mocketh another, do ye so mock him?
10 He will surely reprove you, if ye do secretly accept persons.
11 Shall not his excellency make you afraid, and his dread fall upon you?
12 Your remembrances are like unto empty platitudes,
   Your briefings are as clay;
 
1-5.
'You have said nothing that I don't already know. To solve this question, I desire to argue my case with God, not you.'
6-12. Their arguments (briefings, in the sense of a legal argument) have been mostly proverbial sayings that do not apply (K&D pg. 211). 'Do you argue for God to gain his favor? Do you show partiality to him? Do you think he needs you to defend his case? Are you mocking his viewpoint?' If they argue for any of these reasons, they should fear God and expect punishment. Jesus is not satisfied with any of the reasoning offered so far, because he is confident that he is innocent; and, therefore, should not be suffering. If he is innocent, his friends' advocacy with God is an injustice to him, for which he feels they will be punished. To be either a "respecter of persons" or to "accept persons" means the same thing--to show partiality because of wealth or position, or whatever. It is never acceptable.
12. Changes are based upon the Hebrew translation.

13 Hold your peace and let me alone,
   That I may speak, and let come upon me what will.
14 Wherefore do I take my flesh in my teeth, and put my life in mine hand?
15 Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him; but I will maintain mine own ways before him.
16 He also shall be my salvation; for an hypocrite shall not come before him.
17 Hear diligently my speech and my declaration with your ears.
18 Behold now, I have put in order my cause;
   I know that I shall be justified.
19 Who is he that can contend with me?
   For now, if I hold my tongue I shall give up the ghost.
20 Only do not these two things unto me; then I will not hide myself from thee:
21 Withdraw thine hand from me, and let not thy dread make me afraid.
 
13-16. Jesus is prepared for anything that is to come. Why else would he allow his body to be the prey, even to the point of sacrificing his life? Whatever comes, he will not be hypocritical by denying his claim of innocence.
18. I have made my arguments and know that I am right, or innocent.
19. They cannot contend with him, so who is he that can (K&D pg. 216)? "He" is God, for he rejects any of their arguments. But he must continue to plead, or he would be found to be hypocritical and would die in failure. Verse 19b is missing in the LXX.
20. The two things that he desires are (1) that God does not forsake him, and (2) that he does not lose his fear, or respect of God. Verse 20b is missing in the LXX.

22 Then call thou and I will answer; or let me speak, and then answerest thou me.
23 How many are mine iniquities and sins? make me to know my transgressions and my sin.
24 Wherefore hidest thou thy face, and holdest me for thine enemy?
25 Wilt thou break a leaf driven to and fro?
   And wilt thou pursue the dry stubble?
26 For thou writest bitter things against me,
   And makest me to possess the iniquities of my youth.
27 Thou puttest my feet also into the stocks,
   And lookest narrowly unto all my paths;
   Thou settest a print upon the heels of my feet.
28 And he, like a rotten thing, is consumed like a garment that is moth eaten.
 


23. If he has sinned, he feels that he should be told what they are.
24. "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" (Psa. 22:1). He is really held--held to the cross by the nails. This series of verses is summed up by Psa. 89:38-40--"But thou hast cast off and abhorred, thou hast been wroth with thine anointed. Thou hast made void the covenant of thy servant: thou hast profaned his crown by casting it to the ground." Cp. Psa. 10:1; 43:2; 88:14;. Job 19:23; 23:2; 30:20.
25-26. i.e., I am wasted and defeated like dead leaves, yet you continue to pursue me. You even mock me with the sign: King of the Jews. I am made to possess the iniquities of these young Roman soldiers.
27. Keil and Delitzsch (pg. 220) explain that the original Hebrew suggests more than the translation can express, such as: forcibly confined, producing blood, and the "print" being holes in the soles of his feet, and even that the wounds are filled with metal.
28. His body wastes away, and is full of holes from the scourgings and nails.

CHAPTER 14
 
'Have I failed and become as other men, in need of judgment?' I am cut down like a tree, but I also have hope of sprouting anew like a tree.' That is what is expected for all men, and like all men he yearns for death and then his resurrection. Then truths are expressed about the reason for his suffering, which he didn't know at the time.
 
1  Man that is born of a woman is of few days and full of trouble.
2  He cometh forth like a flower and then is cut down;
   He fleeth also as a shadow and continueth not.
3  And dost thou seest such an one,
   And bringest me into judgment with thee?
4  Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean thing? not one.
5  Seeing his days are determined, the number of his months are with thee,
   Thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass,
6  Turn from him that he may rest,
   Till he shall accomplish, as an hireling, his day.
7  For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again,
   And that the tender branch thereof will not cease altogether.
8  Though the root thereof wax old in the earth,
   And the stock thereof die in the ground,
9  Yet through the scent of water,
   It will bud,
   And bring forth boughs like a plant.

 

2-4. Jesus asks God if he sees him as other men, or in other words, has he sinned and become subject to the judgment. If he has, then who is there that will bring forth the unclean on judgment day? See Psa. 53:3"Every one of them is gone back: they are altogether become filthy; there is none that doeth good, no, not one."
6. Jesus wants it to be over, and like the hireling to have satisfied his "master."
7-9. He is suggesting that even if he has failed and is now subject to the judgment, that there is still hope for him, even like a tree will sprout a seemingly dead stump.

10 But man dieth, and wasteth away; yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?
11 As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and then drieth up,
12 So man lieth down and riseth not, till the heavens be no more;
   They shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.
13 O that thou wouldest hide me in the grave,
   That thou wouldest keep me a secret until thy wrath be past,
   That thou wouldest appoint me a set time and then remember me!
14 If a man die, shall he live again?
   All the days of my appointed time,
   Will I wait, until my replacement comes.
15 Then thou shalt call, and I will answer thee;
   Thou wilt have a desire to the work of thine hands.
16 But for now thou numbered my steps; dost thou not watch me for sin?
17 For transgression, thou stitcheth me up; and thou plastered me up for iniquity.
 
10-12. There will never be a time when the heavens exist no more, so these lines are misleading, and man will rise again. Verse 12b is missing in the LXX.
13. This is an expression a lot like the one he made in the garden when he asked that the cup might pass from him (Matt. 26:39). Here, he suggests that it would be nice to just skip these final moments in hiding, to be brought forth when it would be all over.
14. "Replacement or release" is from the HB. He is looking forward to his resurrection, when he will return. Job 10:17, says that Jesus is his own replacement.
16. His steps are numbered, or limited (to zero) during this final trial, to prove that he is without sin.
17. "Plastered" is the literal meaning per MJJ's footnotes (pg. 248); K&D agree that "plastered" is the meaning, but they would have God plastering over his sins, or hiding them in a bag because of the "stitched up" parallel line. In either case, it cannot be for "my sins" as Jesus is perfect and upright. Jesus tells us he feels like he has been sewn onto the cross by the nails, or like he has been plastered up to a wall. Twice he refers to the crosses on each side of him as walls (cf. 24:11). He even equates himself to a wall being stormed by the enemy and breached with holes (Job 16:14).

18 And surely the mountain falling cometh to naught,
   And the rock is moved out of his place.
19 The waters wear away the stone;
   Thou washest away the things,
   Which grew out of the dust of the earth;
   And thou destroyest the hope of a man.
20 Thou prevailest forever against him, and he passeth;
   Thou changest his countenance,
   And sendest him away.
21 His sons come to honor, but he knoweth it not;
   And they are brought low, but he perceiveth it not of them;
22 For he feels the pain of his flesh, and his soul within him shall mourn.
 
18-20. There are mighty earthquakes and storms, literally (cf. Psa. 18:6-9). But the "rock," and the "stone" refers to Jesus, who's hopes and dreams are being shattered. Even the almost indestructible, is being worn down and dislodged from his place--a place which grew out of being on the earth among men. Things of this world, such as dreams or ambitions of glory, are washed away. It holds true both literally and figuratively; for Matt. 27:51 tells us: "...and the earth did quake and the rocks rent" (see also Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45. (cf. Psa. 118:22--"The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner.")
21. Whose sons? Jobs were all killed in the prologue. These lines have two possible meanings. First, it means that his disciples have come to the site of the cross to honor him in the deepest of humility, but he is not aware of it. Or, because of what he is doing, all the sons and daughters of God will come to a place of honor before God. But again, he doesn't know it because he thinks he has failed. These same sons and daughters are those that are brought low (humbled) by his teachings.
22. In agreement with the NIV, the RSV, and the Hebrew Bible: He is so racked with mental and physical pain that he is unaware of anything else.

CHAPTER 15
 
Eliphaz asks several questions which sound derogatory (part of the deception) but are not when applied to Jesus. He does, however, point out several truths about Jesus that he has in common with the wicked although we know that he is not wicked..
 
1  Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite, and said,
2  Should a wise man utter vain knowledge,
   And fill his belly with the east wind?
3  Should he reason with unprofitable talk,
   Or with speeches wherewith he can do no good?
4  Yea, thou castest off fear, and restrainest prayer before God;
5  Thy own mouth uttereth thine iniquity, and choosest the tongue of the crafty.
6  Thine own mouth condemneth thee, and not I; yea, thine own lips testify against thee.
7  Art thou the first man that was born? or wast thou made before the hills?
8  Hast thou listened in to the secrets of God?
   And dost thou restrain wisdom to thyself?
9  What knowest thou that we know not?
   And what understandest thou, which is not in us?
10 With us are the gray headed and very aged men, much elder than thy father.
11 Are the consolations of God small for thee? is there any secret thing with thee?
 
2-3.
For one to claim that God is being unjust is vain, and amounts to nothing but hot air ("east wind"--like our Chinook winds out of the east). It is a claim that will prove "unprofitable" and will "do no good," which is true because God will have His way.
4. Jesus has spoken out his true feelings and desires, thereby not being hypocritical before God.
5-6. In chap. 14, he subtly asked if the God sees him as any sinless man (V3), and again asks, albeit indirectly, for a judgment. From his view point these requests are completely in line with what he knows, But, yes, his own mouth does condemn him if he keeps asking for a judgment from God, as if what God is doing is a mistake. Verse 6 also resounds with the words of the high priest's charge against Jesus. "What need we any further witness: for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth" (Luke 22:27).
7-9. These questions imply arrogance on his part, but not when asked of Jesus. They are answered in the affirmative for Jesus. Indeed he was God's first-born, long before the hills were made. He did listen in, as he was Jehovah of the Old Testament. These questions sound like they might have been spoken by God.
10-11. These statements also sound as if God is talking. In verse 11, "God" is missing in the LXX.
  

12 Why doth thy heart carry thee away?
   And at what do thine eyes wink at,
13 That thou turnest thy spirit against God,
   And lettest such words as these go out of thy mouth?
14 For what is man, that he should be clean?
   And he which is born of a woman,
   That he should be righteous?
15 Behold, he putteth no trust in his holy ones,
   Yea, and even the heavens are not clean in his sight,
16 Then how much more abominable and filthy is a man,
   Which drinketh iniquity as if it were water?
l7 I will show thee, hear me;
   And that which I have seen I will declare,
18 Which wise men have told from their fathers and have not hid,
19 Unto whom alone the earth was given, and no stranger passed among them.
20 The wicked man travail with pain all the days of his life;
   The number of his years is hidden to the oppressor.
21 A dreadful sound is in his ears;
   In prosperity the destroyer shall come upon him.
22 He believeth not that he shall return out of the darkness,
   But that he is awaited for of the sword.
23 He wandereth abroad for bread,
   Saying, Where is it?
   He knoweth that the day of darkness is ready at his hand.
 
11-16. This is virtually the same question and the same arguments laid out in Chap. four; i.e., Can a man be more righteous than God? and refers to the same events as before that seem to go against God. All men do drink iniquity, and some even "like it is water," but this play on words refers to the fact that Jesus will drink (take on himself) all of the iniquity of the world, even like he would drink a glass of water.
17-19. I will tell you what our fathers have known all the way back to Adam.
20. Jesus is considered the wicked man in these lines. "Hidden to the oppressor" means only God knows how long the suffering will go on.
21. His troubles started "in his prosperity." This same idea is expressed by Zopher in 36:16, where it says: "In the fullness of his sufficiency he shall be in straits" (in trouble).
23. "Wandereth for bread" means that he is looking for knowledge and truth. This is the same metaphor Jesus used when he said, "I am the bread which come down from heaven" (John 6:41; Also cf. Prov. 4:17; 9:5; 23:6).

24 Trouble and anguish shall make him afraid;
   They shall prevail against him, as a king ready to the battle;
25 For he stretchest out his hand against God, and strengthen himself against the almighty.
26 And he runneth upon him, even upon his neck, and upon the thick bosses of his bucklers.
27 Because he covereth his face with fatness, and maketh collops of fat on his flanks.
28 And he dwelleth in desolate cities, and in houses which no man inhabiteth,
   Which are ready to become heaps.
29 He shall not be rich, neither shall his substance continue,
   Neither shall he prolong the perfection thereof upon the earth.
30 He shall not depart out of darkness;
   The flame shall dry up his branches, and by his breath shall he go away.
31 Let not him that is deceived trust in vanity, for vanity shall be his recompense.
32 It shall be done before his time, and his branch shall not be green.
33 He shall shake off his unripe grape as the vine,
   And cast off his flower as the olive.
34 For the congregation of hypocrites shall be desolate,
   And fire shall consume the tabernacle of those who love bribery.
35 They conceive mischief and bring forth vanity,
   And their womb prepareth deceit.
 
24. He is frightened, as a King on the front lines would be frightened, knowing every man on the other side wants his life more than anyone else. The LXX has "general" instead of "king."
25. K&D says that the Hebrew words signify here: to maintain a heroic bearing, to play the hero, to make one's self rich (in confidence), to play as if in the right, Prov. 8:7.
26. K&D says that this line, "expresses the special prominence of the neck in his assailing God . . . in the sense of stiff-necked or hard-headed." This explanation is consistent with the verses before and after, and makes sense, where "even upon his neck" (KJV), isn't consistent and doesn't make sense. These lines (25,26,27) are expressed in the most extreme hyperbole, and indicate how great the sin would be if pride were to develop. 26 & 27 are missing in the LXX.
28. But pride is not to be. God will prevent pride from even starting to grow, which condition is represented by the "desolate cities", and "houses" which no man should inhabit. Cities and houses are both used many time in the Old Testament to represent our bodies, and sometimes an inward, spiritual condition. In Hebrew, house means the same as temple, hence, house or temple can refer to our body, which are the temples of God (See 1Cor. 3:16; John 2:21).
29-34. . It will be accomplished by making him think that he has failed. And only then will his life be given up by himself ("by his breath").
34. Here, tabernacle is used as "house" or "temple." Our translation is close to the NIV.

CHAPTER 16
 
His friends have offered no explanations that make sense to him. He describes what is happening to him. He is still sure of his innocence and wants his blood to testify of it to all.
 
1  Then Job answered and said,
2  I have heard many such things;
   But miserable comforters are ye all.
3  And shall words of wind not have an end?
   Or what emboldeneth thee, that thou answerest?
4  I could speak as ye do, if your soul were in my stead.
   I could heap up words against you, and shake mine head at you.
5  But I would strengthen you, the moving of my lips should assuage your grief.
6  Though I speak, my grief is not assuaged; and though I forbear, what am I eased?
7  But now he hath made me weary; and thou hast made desolate all my company.
8  And thou hast filled me with wrinkles, which is a witness against me,
   And my leanness, rising up to me, beareth witness to my face.
 
2.
K&D explains this to mean, "I have heard more than enough" (pg. 278).
6.
i.e., All this talk makes no difference; speaking or silent, my pain is the same.
7. K&D render it, "Now He seeks neither by speaking to alleviate his pain, nor by silence to control himself: God has placed him in a condition in which all his strength is exhausted. He is absolutely incapable of offering any resistance to his pain, and care has also been taken that no solacing word shall come to him from any quarter: Thou hast made all my society desolate...all my clan...all my household" (pg. 281). Later Job will refer to them as his kinsfolk, meaning his fellow Jews (cf. 19:14).
8. K&D explain, "God has shriveled him up; and this suffering form to which God has reduced him, is become an evidence, i.e. for himself and for others, as the three friends, an accusation de facto, which puts him down as a sinner, although his self-consciousness testifies the opposite to him." His emaciated, wrinkled body is right before his face, boldly and directly as if a convicted criminal. He is unable to lift his head off of his chest. cf. Psa. 22:17--"I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me." Also see Psa. 38:6; 102:5. Verse 8 is missing in the LXX.

9  He teareth me in his wrath, who hateth me;
   He gnasheth upon me with his teeth;
   My enemy sharpeneth his eyes upon me.
10 They have gaped on me with their open mouth;
   They have smitten me on the cheek reproachfully,
   And they have gathered themselves together against me.
11 God hath shut me up and delivered me to the ungodly,
   And turned me over into the hands of the wicked.
12 I was at ease, but he hath broken me asunder.
   He hath also taken me by the neck,
   And shaken me to pieces,
   And set me up for his mark.
13 His archers compass me round about,
   He cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare;
   And he poureth out my gall upon the ground.
14 He breaketh me with breach upon breach,
   He runneth upon me like a giant.
15 I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin,
   And defiled mine horn in the dust.
 
9. Now we shift from what God is doing to him directly, to what God is doing via his human enemies. Jastrow explains that "He" means his human adversary, which, of course is what it has to mean, as God certainly doesn't hate him. This verse ties in with the next three, which refer to his human adversaries.
10. The mob, his clan or kinsfolk (cf. 19:14), strike and revile him. Verse 10 is missing in the LXX.
11. God has delivered him to the Jews.
12. He (God) set him up like a target (a mark), to shoot at with iron arrows--into his hands and feet.
13. The evil one's bowmen surround him with arrows. (cf. 32:18). There are arrows to his right, to his left, and through his feet, even a spear into his side. John 19:34 tells us of the spear: "But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith there came out blood and water. "K&D in a footnote explains (by quoting another) that the bursting of the gall-bladder is thought, by the Arabs, to be brought about by the working of violent and painful emotions (pg. 286).
14. Here he refers to himself as a wall, like the outer defenses of a city.
15. Jesus might as well sew on his mourning clothes, for they are the same as permanent now. He likens his skin of blood clots, dirt and pus to a suit of sackcloth for mourning. His horn represents his power or pride, which is no more.
 

16 My face is fouled with weeping,
   And on mine eyelids is the shadow of death;
17 Not for injustice in mine hands; also my prayer is pure.
18 O earth, cover not thou my blood, and let my cries have no place.
19 Also now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and my record is in high places.
20 My friends scorn me, but mine eye poureth out tears unto God.
21 O that one might plead for a man with God,
   As a man pleadeth for his neighbor!
22 When a few years are come,
   I shall go the way whence I shall not return.
 
16. His eyes are so filled with tears that he cannot see.
17. He still believes himself to be innocent of any wrongdoing, and therefore, his suffering is unjust. (cf. Psa. 64:4--"That they may shoot . . .at the perfect:" and 69:4--"then I restored that which I took not away."
18-19. Continuing with the idea that his suffering is unjust, he pleads for his blood to never be covered by the earth, and that his cries will never die out. (cf. Ezek. 24:7-8; Isa. 26:21).
20. As friends scorn him, even his best friends, which is good reason to pour out his tears. (cf. Psa. 38:11--"My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my sore; and my kinsmen stand afar off.")
21. Oh that there was someone to plead with Him on my behalf, still expresses the opinion that God is in error, or that He has not been in control enough to prevent this injustice from happening. Verse 21 is missing in the LXX.
22. Every minute is like a year to him now. Convinced that he has made a mistake, he thinks he is going to die and never return to his Father; all this because he thinks the Father has forsaken him.
 

CHAPTER 17
 
Jesus continues, 'My life is coming to an end without hope. My desires, my expectations (the thoughts of my heart) are being terminated.' Twice in this chapter, by innuendo (v2a and 13a), he suggests that he could terminate this situation at any time, but doesn't.
 
1  My breath is corrupt, my days are extinct,
   And the graves are ready for me.
2  Surely, are there not mockers here with me?
   And doth not mine eye continue in their provocation?
3  Lay down now, and put me in a surety with thee;
   For who is he that will strike hands with me?
4  For thou hast hid their heart from understanding;
   Therefore, thou shalt not exalt them.
5  He who giveth his friend for spoil,
   Even the eyes of his children shall fail.
 
1.
K&D concludes that this means his breath has become putrid. Other expositors take this "breath" the same as Gen. 2:7, which is the breath of life, and conclude that he means his life is destroyed, which is confirmed by the parallelisms, "My days are extinct [or gone] and the grave is ready for me."
2. By asking the question, Do I not let them continue? he suggests that he has the power to take himself out of this situation; and Jesus did have that power given to him by the Father (John 10:18). He could stop the crucifixion at any time, but he allows it to "continue." He also knew of Judas' conspiracy but still allowed it to go on: " . . . one of you which eateth with me shall betray me" (Mark 14:18). Not in LXX.
3-4. Speaking to God, he asks for Him to warranty his actions, and strike, or shake hands, to seal it, for there is no one else with the understanding to do it. He is pleading with God to confirm his innocence by laying down a pledge or warranty for him. Verse 4 is missing in the LXX.
5. The RSV and the HB both read, "He informs on his friends for a share of their property." That is very close to what Judas did and certainly gives one the right idea for this line. K&D come closer with: "He who giveth his friends for a spoil," which is the basis for this translation. Judas betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver. After his death, his children will cry for him, or more likely it means that he will have no children at all. We are told of his death in Matt. 26:5, "And he cast down the pieces of silver, and departed, and went and hanged himself." cf. Psa. 41:9--"Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me." Also see Psa. 55:12-14. This important verse in not found in the LXX.

6  He hath made me also a byword of the people,
   And now before them, as a child at Tophet.
7  Mine eye also is dim by reason of sorrow,
   And all my members are as a shadow.
8  Upright men shall be astonished at this trouble,
   And the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite.
9  The righteous also shall hold on his way,
   And he that hath clean hands,
   Shall become stronger and stronger.
10 But as for you all, do ye return, and come again;
   For I cannot find one wise man among you.
11 My days are past;
   My purposes are broken off,
   Even the possessions of my heart.
 
6. From V2 we know the mockers are there, and their byword (an object of notoriety; a nickname or epithet) is, of course, "King of the Jews" (See Matt. 27:29; 27:39, Mark 15:18; John 19:3). K&D point out that the long ago expositors (from a translation by Jerome) mistakenly were reminded of the name of the place where the sacrifices were offered to Moloch in the valley of the sons of Hinnom, which was Tophet. They say the Hebrew means to spit in the face, which would still be interesting, but the Hebrew Bible takes exception to their opinion and translated it, "I have become like Tophet of old," and adds the footnote, "that consumes children" (pg. 287). To become like a place is rather awkward, but to become like a child at that place is quite clear, since it was a place where children were sacrificed. Therefore, he is saying, he is like the children that were sacrificed in the valley of slaughter. See Jer. 19:5-15.
7. He is crying so profusely that he cannot see clearly, and everything is blurred like a shadow. This especially means his own body, which is his view, with his head on his chest.
8-9. Verses 9 & 10 are not in LXX. The righteous will grow spiritually as a result of what he is accomplishing. It is plain how the righteous will benefit from the atonement.
10. He has resigned himself to death but still retains his belief in his innocence. They do not understand the situation.
11. His "purpose" and "desires" were to be the Messiah, to remain perfect. Now they are "broken off." The desires of his heart are ended.

12 They change the night into day;
   The light is short because of darkness.
13 If I wait, the grave is mine house,
   And I have made my bed in the darkness;
14 I have cried to corruption, Thou art my father,
   And to the worm, Thou art my mother, and my sister.
15 And where is now my hope? and as for my hope, who shall see it?
16 They shall go down to the bars of the pit,
   When we rest together in the dust.
 
12. They, his enemies, have changed what is night into day and called what is good evil, and what is evil good (Isa. 5:20). For now he is in darkness literally and figuratively. Not only is day turned into darkness, literally, but he is in darkness figuratively because God didn't show these things to him beforehand; and he doesn't know why he has been forsaken.
13-15. If I wait, or hope, I see only the grave in my future; other hopes or dreams are gone. Again this suggests that he doesn't have to wait, but that he could terminate this ordeal any time. But as line 2a said, he lets it continue out of obedience to God.
16. The line is a composite of NIV, KJV, and MJJ. K&D says, "[Hebrew] signifies bars, bolts, which Hahn denies, although he says himself that [Hebrew] signifies beams of wood among other things; "bolts" is not here intended to imply such as are now used in locks, but the cross bars and beams of wood of any size that serve as a fastening to a door:" Jesus, along with his hope, and the beams of wood of the cross, will go down together into a pit (the dust) on Golgotha.

CHAPTER 18
 
"Bildad" says, 'How long before you cease these arguments? Your opinions will have to change, and the changing instrument, the cross, is likened to a snare, completely unexpected and confining. Although these statements can and are said about the wicked in general, they are being applied to Jesus because his thinking is in error. He thinks he has sinned.
 
1  Then answered Bildad the Shuhite, and said,
2  How long will it be ere ye make an end of words?
   Mark it, and afterwards we will speak.
3  Wherefore are we counted as beasts,
   And reputed vile in your sight?
4  He teareth at himself in his anger;
   Shall all the earth be forsaken for thee?
   And shall the rock be removed out of his place?
5  Yea, the light of the wicked shall be put out,
   And the spark of his fire shall not shine.
6  The light shall be dark in his tabernacle,
   And his candle shall be put out with him.
7  The steps of his strength shall be straitened.
   And his own counsel shall cast him down.
8  He is cast into a net by his own feet,
   And he walketh upon a snare.
9  The gin shall take him by the heel,
   And the robber shall prevail against him.
10 The snare is laid for him in the ground,
   And a trap for him in the way.
 
2-3. These lines seem to be just for the basic story of Job, and don't seem to have any meaning to Jesus. If they are, in any way, it is expressed in extreme hyperbole. Bildad was supposed to be a friend.
4. If Jesus were guilty of any sin, as he suspects he is, than this indicates that he is disappointed with himself, discounting the hyperbolic statement. If he has failed, it would mean "that the heavens and the earth and everything that in them are" would be a waste. He is the "rock.," Cf. Psa. 119:22.
5. This sounds like he is to pass into nothingness, which would be true if he has failed.
7-10. HB. He is caught by the nails as if he were in a trap or snare, hence the analogies of being in a noose, in hobbles, or in a net.

11 Terrors shall make him afraid on every side,
   And shall drive him to his feet.
12 His strength shall be hungerbitten,
   And destruction is ready at his side.
13 It shall devour the strength of his skin;
   Even the firstborn of death shall devour his strength.
14 His confidence shall be rooted out of his tabernacle,
   And it shall bring him to the king of terrors.
15 It shall dwell in his tabernacle,
   Because it is none of his;
   Brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation.
16 His roots shall be dried up beneath, and above shall his branch be cut off.
17 His remembrance shall perish from the earth, and he shall have no name in the street.
18 He shall be driven from light into darkness, and chased out of the world.
19 He shall have neither son or nephew among his people,
   Nor any remaining in his dwellings.
20 They that come after him,
   Shall be astonished at his day,
   As they that went before were affrighted.
21 Surely, such are the dwellings of the wicked;
   And this is the place of him that knoweth not God.
 
11. The terrors (nails) drive him to his feet to get a breath of air. "Hanging by His arms, the pectoral muscles are paralyzed and the inter coastal muscles are unable to act. Air can be drawn into the lungs, but cannot be exhaled. Jesus fights to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, carbon dioxide builds up in the lungs and in the blood stream and the cramps partially subside. Spasmodically, He is able to push Himself upward to exhale and bring in the life-giving oxygen." Taken from  (THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS--a medical point of view by Dr: C. Truman Davis.)
12-13. His strength is gone, and a spear waits to pierce his side, and will destroy the integrity of his skin, if there is any left after the scourges and nails.
14. This line gives us a sense of why God is doing this; i.e., to remove his confidence, which most likely is akin to pride. The king of terrors is death itself, which is virtually living with him, but cannot take his life; therefore we learn why God is bringing him so much "brimstone," which is one of the four elements reserved for the wicked, as explained in Psa. 11:6. The other are snares, fire, and tempest.
16. His "roots" are his legs and his "branches" are his arms.
17-19. This will only be true if he has sinned.
20. Men in the future will be aghast in disbelief that it is true.

CHAPTER 19
 
Jesus replies, 'I am innocent, and being punished wrongly, but no one will listen. I cry it out, but there is no judgment. I can do nothing about it; He destroys me, counting me as an enemy.'
 
1  Then Job answered and said,
2  How long will ye vex my soul,
   And break me into pieces with words?
3  For these ten times have ye reproached me;
   Ye are not ashamed that you make yourselves strange to me.
4  And be it indeed that I have erred, mine error remaineth with myself.
5  If indeed ye will magnify yourselves against me, and plead against me my reproach,
6  Know now that it is God that hath overthrown me, and hath compassed me about with his net.
7  Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard; I cry aloud, but there is no judgment.
8  He hath fenced up my way that I cannot pass; and he hath set darkness in my paths.
9  He hath stripped me of my glory, and taken the crown from mine head.
10 He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone;
   And mine hope hath he removed like a tree.
11 He hath kindled his wrath against me,
   And he hath counted me unto him as one of his enemies.
12 His troops come together, and they raise up their way against me;
   And encamp round about my tabernacle.
 
2-3. How long? Cp. Psa. 6:3; 13:1; 35:17; Job 19:2-3. "Ten times" in the sense of many times, as many as can be counted on the fingers for example (K&D, MJJ, HB). Cf. Psa. 89:38-39.
4-6 If I have erred, I surely can't say how. If they think to benefit from his problems, he wants to make sure they understand that God is responsible for his predicament.
7-8. Jesus argues that he is being wronged by God, because He will not hear his pleas (cf. Jer. 20:8). These lines could also refer the his words, My God, My God, Why hast thou forsaken me.
10. The nails destroy him on "every side," on his right and on his left, destroying his hope--just like pulling out a tree would destroy it.
11. To consider God his enemy, he would just about have to believe he is guilty of something.
12. His troops, meaning God's troops, are the Roman soldiers, and "their way" is the cross, which has been raised up "against" his back. Also see 30:12, where "their way" is a way of destruction.

13 He hath put my brethren far from me;
   And mine acquaintances are verily estranged from me.
14 My kinsfolk have failed, and my familiar friends have forgotten me.
15 They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger;
   For I am as an alien in their sight.
16 I called my servant,
   And he give me no answer;
   I entreated him with my mouth.
17 My breath is strange to the children of my womb,
   Though I entreated for the children's sake of mine own body.
18 Yea, young children despised me; I arose, and they spake against me.
19 All my inward friends abhorred me; they whom I loved are turned against me.
20 My bones cleaveth to my skin and flesh; and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.
21 Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends, for the hand of God hath touched me.
22 Why do ye persecuteth me as God, and are not satisfied with my flesh?
 
13-15. His disciples, his followers, and his friends have all fled from him. They are those who knew him intimately as bosom friends--the kind that should thank him for their sustenance within his house. They look upon him as a stranger or as an intruder from another country. Cf. Psa. 38:11.
16. His closest servant would not come, nor would he even answer. It suggests that he, too, is unexpectedly gone, and probably refers to Peter.
17. The Jastrow translation says it literally means, the sons of my wife's womb (pg.263). It means, indirectly, his children, but not Job's earthly children;, and so, it means all of God's children, and now makes perfect sense. "My breath [meaning my life] is offensive to God's children, at least those that now crucify me, though I have given my body for their sake--through the Atonement."
18-19. He is alone, hated and persecuted by the world.
20.
His body is nothing but skin and bones, but he still lives, only by ("with") the skin of his teeth, which means just barely (cf. Psa. 6:2; 38:3; 102:5--"By reason of the voice of my groaning my bones cleave to my skin.").
22. God, as well as Jesus' clan (the Jews), seems to want more than just his flesh. God wants to change his visage, and the Jews want his life.

23 Oh that my words were now written! Oh that they were printed in a book!
24 That they were graven with an iron pen and lead, in the rock for ever!
   For I know that my vindicator liveth, and that he shall stand,
   At the latter day upon the earth.
26 And though after my skin worms destroy this body,
   Yet in my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself;
   My eyes shall behold, and not another; though my heart be consumed within me.
28 But ye should say, Why persecute we him, seeing the root of the matter is found in me?
29 Be ye afraid of the sword; for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword,
   That ye may know there is a judgment.
 
23-24. Jesus is yearning for the whole episode to be over, even to the extent of already being recorded history. But not just in any book, "for the etymon of the Hebrew word from which "book" was translated means something much more elegant, like a special book made from the skin of an animal" (K&D pg. 352). Then he goes on to wish these words were immortalized by engraving them into a stone (a play on words, since he is the stone), as a witness to his posterity, to last forever. This is the same wish he has made before when he pleaded for the earth to not cover his blood, or that his cries would find no place to rest, at least until he is vindicated.
25. All of the scholars are in agreement that this should read "vindicator" instead of redeemer. So, he is expressing confidence that he will be declared innocent and will stand on the earth in the flesh again, following his death. And that he will see God in the flesh.
27.
Then he makes a statement reminiscent of what Thomas' was thinking when he was first told that Jesus had been resurrected. His exact words were, ". . . except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe" (John 20:25). The ending for this series, verse 27, supports the same longing that he expressed in verse twenty three, meaning, "my heart strings yearn," even to being destroyed. It is also used by the HB and NIV.
28-29. This is a warning to not think that he's guilty. Verse 28b is missing in the LXX.

CHAPTER 20
 
"Zophar" retorts, 'I have to answer. Your dreams shall be dashed, to wind up in the grave with you. Even though you are innocent and perfect, such dreams will be purged, and purged according to their number and strength.' The only thing that could be construed to be a sin in all of Zophar's accusations is found in verse fifteen, and it is simply that he has swallowed down riches that he must give back. Verse twelve even states that he has not let any wickedness out of his mouth. These riches have to be his own riches of success. All that Jesus had gained in life, that which could give him some satisfaction and could grow into pride, had to be given back. Not because it constitutes a sin, but because of what God will allow a man to take away from this world that could become a problem later.
 
1  Then answered Zophar the Naamathite, and said,
2  Therefore do my thoughts cause me to answer,
   And for this, I make haste;
3  For I have heard the check of my reproach,
   And the spirit of mine understanding causeth me to answer.
4  Knowest thou not this of old, since man was placed upon the earth,
5  That the triumphing of the wicked is not for long,
   And the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?
6  Though his excellency mount to the heavens,
   And his head reach into the clouds,
7  Yet he shall perish forever like his dung.
   They who have seen him shall say, Where is he?
8  For he shall fly away as a dream, and shall not be found;
   Yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the night.
9  The eye also which saw him shall see him no more,
   Neither shall his place any more behold him.
 
2-3. He is anxious to reply, to respond to the correction (check) of his earlier reproach. He claims to have understanding, and indeed he does, for he says nothing negative about Jesus.
4-5. These verses introduce the remaining verses of this chapter with a true statement about what happens to the wicked in general, and suggests that Jesus is wicked (tongue in cheek of course).
6. Mounted above the ground, as he was, would explain this verse very well, but it refers primarily to his outstanding achievements, which reach to the sky.
7-9. These lines reflect the same idea expressed by, Naked I came, and naked shall I return. In his eyes he will be as nothing, as if he had not been.

10 His children shall seek out the poor,
   And his hands shall restore their goods.
11 His bones are full of the vigor of his youth,
   Which shall lie down with him in the dust.
12 Though wickedness be sweet in his mouth,
   Though he hide it under his tongue,
13 Though he spare, and forsake it not,
   But keep it in the midst of his palate,
14 Yet his meat in his bowels is turned;
   It is the gall of asps within him.
15 He hath swallowed down riches,
   But he shall vomit them up again;
   For God shall cast them out of his belly.
16 He shall suck the poison of asps, and the viper's tongue shall slay him.
17 He shall not see the rivers, the streaming brooks, the brooks of honey and cream.
18 That which he labored for shall he restore, and shall not swallow it down.
   According to his substance shall the restitution be,
   And he shall not rejoice therein.
 
10.
His disciples (children) will seek for converts among the "poor" in spirit. His efforts will atone for them and restore them to God.
11. Verses 11, 12 and 13 are missing in the LXX. "Full of sin" (KJV) makes no sense, and the RSV, K&D, NIV, and HB agree that it means "youthful vigor," or in other words, "in good health." He will go down to the "dust" (grave) with no broken bones. "But when they came to Jesus, and saw that He was dead already, they brake not his legs" (John 19:33).
12-13. No evil will come forth from his mouth.
14. Death on the cross usually came from internal congestion, inflammation, and organic disturbances. It also means that his knowledge has soured, leaving him in confusion.
15. God is humbling Jesus, and all his previous successes or glories are being purged. This also probably means that Jesus actually threw up because of the internal disturbances.
17. Jesus will not be allowed to enjoy the fruits of his labors, which are likened to the "promised land" that flows with milk and honey. This kind of end for Jesus possibly explains, at least partly, why Moses was denied from going into Israel, as he was a type figure for Jesus.
18. All of his successes that could bring pride and glory will be given back.

19 Because he hath cast down and hath crushed the poor,
   Because he hath violently taken away an house which he buildeth not,
20 Surely he shall not feel any quietness in his belly;
   He shall not save of that which he desired.
21 There shall none of his meat be left;
   Therefore shall no man look for his goods.
22 In the fullness of his sufficiency he shall be in straits,
   Every hand of the wicked shall come upon him.
23 When he is about to fill his belly,
   God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him;
   And he shall rain it upon him even while he is eating.
24 And although he shall flee from the iron weapon,
   The bow of steel shall strike him through.
25 It is drawn, and cometh out of the body,
   Yea, the glittering sword cometh out of his gall;
   Terrors are upon him.
 
19. K&D uses "cast down" instead of "oppressed" and the Hebrew Bible uses "crushed" instead of "forsaken." With this slight change in words it is possible to have two lines suggesting something that is not really meant (for the sake of the allegory); i.e., it can sound like he robbed the poor to get the funds for his house, which he won't be allowed to finish since God has violently taken him away; but it really means, he crushed and cast down the spirits of the proud to make them poor in spirit; and God has taken him away from building a house of satisfaction, which has not been completed.
20. He is surely upset mentally, but this would also refer to the internal disturbances caused by being crucified. 20b suggests that he looked forward to a feeling of success. It is not in the LXX.
21. Line A is missing in the LXX. He does give up all his earthly goods, including his physical condition?
22. The successful completion of his mission, getting past such dire "straits," will mean that the "hands" of all the repentant wicked that have accepted him can lay claim on God's mercy for forgiveness.
23. "To fill his belly" must refer to this final achievement of sacrificing his life, which he expected to do; that is when his greatest problems "rained" down of him.
24. The "iron weapons" are the nails in his hands and feet, which he does escape from ("flee") as far a death is concerned; but (24b) the bow, or blade of steel shall pierce him, which of course means the spear that will be thrust into his side (cf. Job 6:4 and 16:13). Most other translations use bronze instead of steel, and they seem to ignore the fact that a bow doesn't pierce one's body, and that a sword is paralleled to this verse in v25. The RSV and NIV both use "brazen arrow," and a spear can be thought of as an arrow; it is just thrown differently.

26 All darkness is laid up for his treasured ones,
   A fire that is not blown shall consume him;
   It shall go ill with him
   That is left in his tabernacle.
27 The heaven shall reveal his iniquity,
   And the earth shall rise up against him.
28 The increase of his house shall depart from him,
   And his goods shall flow away in the day of his wrath.
29 This is the portion of a wicked man from God,
   And the heritage appointed unto him by God.
 
26. Jastrow says that the darkness "is laid up for his protected ones." K&D says, "All darkness is reserved for his treasured things." The NIV and the RSV versions use "treasures." It is easy to understand how "hid" and "laid up" could both come from the same Hebrew word, and also how his disciples could be considered to be his "treasures" or "treasured ones." Darkness, then, awaits the disciples at the loss of their "teacher."
26b. His life will not be taken by any man, nor can it be. He will give it up himself, all according to his own words recorded in John 10:18, "No man taketh it [my life] from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again."
27 .
It is God who does this to him, but He does it through those on the earth. These lines could also be referring to the upheavals of heaven and earth that took place during the crucifixion.
28. Jesus will give back all his feelings of achievement, everything connected to the world.
29. Zophar closes with a hyperbolic statement suggesting that Job is wicked, but really is just saying that this is his portion from God, not being, necessarily, something bad.

CHAPTER 21
 
Jesus asks, 'Wherefore do the wicked sometimes go through life without any punishment from God?' He is asking, indirectly, why he couldn't receive the same treatment if he has sinned. Even so, he points out that the outlook of the wicked is foolish, when they think they have no need of God, just because they seem to do so well without Him. But he says, many times they do receive their punishment, and when they do, they are as stubble. Then he shifts to talk, or prophesy about himself, indicating what he expects to happen.
 
1  Job answered and said,
2  Hear diligently my speech,
   And let this be your consolation.
3  Suffer me, that I may speak a thing,
   And after I have spoken, then ye mock on.
4  But as for me, is my complaint made unto a man?
   Even if it were so, why should not my spirit be troubled?
5  Look unto me and be astonished, and lay your hand upon your mouth.
6  Even when I remember I am afraid, and trembling taketh hold on my flesh.
7  Wherefore do the wicked live, become old, yea, are mighty in power?
8  Their seed is established in their sight with them,
   And their offspring before their eyes.
9  Their houses are safe from fear,
   Neither is the rod of God upon them.
 
4.
His complaint is not to man but to God. K&D suggest that this statement is in reply to a Arabian proverb, which says: "The perfect patience is that which allows no complaint to be uttered against creatures (men)." If it were to men, it wouldn't change anything. His spirit would still be troubled. Jesus knows God is responsible.
5-6. "Yes, look, and you, too, will be aghast at my condition." Jesus can't believe his own emaciated condition; and the trembling must be severe from the fatigued and cramping muscles, which are trying to hold the weight from his straining arms.
7-15. Now that he is in so much pain and suffering, being innocent, he muses about how the guilty sometimes escape their punishment all of their lives, especially the guilty who are crucifying him at that very moment.
8-9.
The attitude of the wicked that is expressed in this series of verses is the same one the Jews had when they cried out: "His blood be upon us and our children" (Matt. 27:25). It is also the exact thinking of the wicked of Noah's time, just before the flood, and then they were swept away in an instant (cf. 22:16-17).

10 Their bull gendereth, and faileth not;
   Their cow calveth, and loses not her calf.
11 They send forth their little ones like a flock,
   And their children dance.
12 They take the timbrel and harp,
   And rejoice at the sound of the pipes.
13 They spend their days in wealth,
   And in a moment go down to the grave.
14 Therefore they say, God, depart from us;
   For we desire not the knowledge of thy ways.
15 What is the Almighty that we should serve him?
   And what profit should we have if we pray unto him?
16 Lo, their good is not in their hand.
   The counsel of the wicked is far from me.
17 How oft is the candle of the wicked put out!
   And how oft cometh their destruction upon them,
   When God distributeth sorrows in his anger!
18 They are as stubble before the wind,
   As chaff, that the storm carrieth away.
 
10. Pilate, their bull, does just as he pleases, which is just what the crowds want (cf. Psa. 22:12--"Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round."; also Psa. 68:30--"Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till every one submit himself with pieces of silver: scatter thou the people that delight in war." Also see Amos 4:1; Job 36:33 and Ezekiel 35:17,22.23 for other places where people are represented by cattle.). He will not fail them. Herod, the second in command, does the same. "Beast is used many times in a similar manner in the scriptures; e.g., Job 5:23; Ecc. 3:18; Isa. 56:8-9; Also Cp. Psalms 73:22--"So foolish was I, and ignorant: I was as a beast before thee."
11-15. In other words, they fear nothing. going along happy and carefree. For the people of Jehovah, this attitude amounts to knowledgeable rejection of God, a heinous sin.
16. Their good (prosperity) is not their doing. The wisdom of the wicked is beyond his understanding; it simply makes no sense to him.
17. "How oft," is in the sense of, How seldom. These lines remind us of the patience of God, waiting, hoping, that His children will repent. When He does come down upon them, they are as stubble.

19 God layeth up punishment for iniquity for his children,
   But he rewardeth him, and he shall know.
20 His eyes shall see his destruction,
   And he shall drink the wrath of the Almighty.
21 For what pleasure will he have in his house after him,
   When the number of his months are cut off in the midst of them?
22 Shall any teach God knowledge, seeing he judgeth those that are on high?
23 One dieth in his full strength, being wholly at ease and quiet.
24 His breasts are full of milk, and his bones are moist.
25 Another dieth in the bitterness of his soul,
   And never eateth with pleasure.
26 They shall lie down alike in the dust, and the worms shall cover them.
27 Behold, I know your thoughts, and the devices which ye wrongfully imagine against me.
28 For ye say, Where is the house of the prince? and where the dwelling place of the wicked?
29 Have ye not asked them that go by the way? Do ye not know their tokens?
30 That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction;
   They shall be brought forth to the day of wraths.
 
19-21.
God may wait to punish us for our sins; but in the case of Jesus, He "rewarded" him now. These lines sound as if they are meant negatively. If he has sinned, he wants to know how, and to get the punishment over.
22. Who would instruct God? since He judges even the greatest.
23-25. One man can die without any trials, happy as can be, while another is just the opposite, namely himself; why? Verse 23 is missing in the LXX.
28. Literally it means: "a small one room tent in the case of house, and a many room palace in the case of dwelling places" (K&D pg.416, and see footnote). This is the same as saying: Look at the facts, Jesus (the prince) is destroyed, while the wicked that crucify him are not hindered.
29-30.
In the sense of, "Those who know." Again we have dual meanings: First, there are the wicked that escape punishment for now, and second, are the wicked that repent and follow Jesus, who will escape punishment on judgment day. The latter will be those who are on the "high way," who know, and have their tokens. This means those who have lifted themselves above the worldly way, onto the Lord's mountain, by making covenants with Him, and received His tokens of those covenants. Cf. "And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you [Noah] and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:"(Gen 9:12-13); "And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you [Abraham]." (Gen.17:11). "And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words." (Exod. 24:8).

31 Who shall declare his way to his face?
   And who shall repay him for what he hath done?
32 Yet shall he be brought to the grave,
   While a watch is kept at his tomb.
33 The clods of the valley shall be sweet unto him,
   And every man shall draw after him, as there are innumerable before him.
34 How then comfort ye me in vain, seeing in your answers there remaineth treachery?
 
31. Who shall declare his way to his face? The repentant ones of course, on judgment day. No one will ever be able to repay him for what he has done, other than by keeping his commandments.
32. Yes, he must die, that all might live. Unlike Job, who will continue to live, Jesus will go to the grave, and a guard will be placed at his tomb. Matt. 27:65 recorded, "Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch; Go your way, make it as sure as you can. So they went and made the sepulcher sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch." The Hebrew Bible is the most clear, but all the translations, except for the KJV, translate 32b with the same meaning.
33. The grave will be sweet for him, because at that time he will know of his total success. All men will draw after him, because there is no other name given whereby salvation cometh.
34. HB, K&D. There is no falsehood in these statements, but there is some treachery in their replies, in a tongue-in-cheek way, for many have dual meanings like verses 29 and 30. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible says that treachery is the primary meaning of the Hebrew word.  

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